Don’t fight the dark: Five simple ways to cut down on light pollution

When you visit the George Observatory, you’ll notice signs that say, “Please no white lights.” You’ll also see that all our outside lights are red. The reason we do this is to fight light pollution and create a dark-sky-friendly environment (or at least as dark as we can this close to Houston). 

Despite our best efforts, the surrounding area is slowly losing its dark skies. This is unfortunate, and not just for those of us who love to stargaze. Too much light at night is also bad for animal migrations, human sleep patterns, and even personal safety.

So what can we, as individuals, do to fight light pollution?  Here are five simple things:

1. Turn off all unused lights
Your dad was right: leaving lights on when you’re not using them is just throwing money away. So when you leave an area, make it a habit to turn the lights off.

2. Shield all outside lights
Outside lights should serve one purpose: to show you where you’re going. So why do so many people insist on lighting the underside of passing airplanes? We encourage you to invest in light shields. They will help with light pollution and save you money.

3. Don’t over-light
When installing outside fixtures, consider the best wattage for your needs. You want enough light to see where you are going — anything else isn’t helping you see . Also, your neighbors will appreciate you not flooding their bedrooms with light.

4. Avoid ornamental lighting
It’s wonderful that you’re proud of your home, but remember what we said about light pollution and crime. When you overuse ornamental light, you may feel like your house is more secure; however, you’re actually making your property a target for thieves.

5. Spread the word!
Now that you know the dangers of light pollutions, share that information with others. There are many websites that will help you and your friends protect the night sky, like the International Dark Sky Association.

Knowledge is power, and we all need to do our part to keep the stars at night big and bright deep in the heart of Texas!

To see the best dark skies in the Houston area come out to the George Observatory! From there you can see stars, galaxies planets… almost anything in space. And what’s more, we want to help you see everything out there better, so bring your telescope out for our telescope classes. The next one’s coming up this Saturday, May 3 from 5 p.m. to 7 p.m

 

Stay up late for a great cosmic show: The first eclipse of April 2014 is tonight!

Don’t forget: there’s a lunar eclipse tonight! The eclipse will begin shortly before midnight and continue until 4:30 in the morning on April 15. You’ll be able to see the eclipse from just about everywhere in Houston, but especially well at the George Observatory, where you can watch through telescopes away from city lights.

We’ve been getting a lot of people asking, “What exactly is a lunar eclipse?” Well, a lunar eclipse is when the Moon passes into the Earth’s shadow, or umbra. For this to happen, the Sun, Earth, and Moon have to be perfectly aligned.

For those who have never seen an eclipse, it is quite breathtaking. The Moon will start out full. As it rises, it will reach the edge of the umbra shortly before midnight, where it will begin to disappear. As the Moon continues to rise, it will slowly be engulfed by the Earth’s shadow. Then, as it sets, the Moon will slowly reappear until it is full again (roughly around 4:30 in the morning).

Since this a total eclipse, it can be viewed anywhere in the world that is facing away from the Sun. You can sit outside, even in the city, and view the eclipse yourself.

However, the George Observatory will be open all night to the public tonight. For $5 per person, you can enjoy our three large telescopes. Then, once the eclipse begins, relax on our deck and watch the eclipse with our astronomers. Besides the Moon, Mars will also be visible (we’ve just passed opposition, so tonight’s a really a great chance to see the red planet, as it’s much brighter than usual).

Want to know more about the Moon while you gaze up at it tonight? This great video from Live Science goes through the history of the formation of the Moon and how it got some of its most famous features!

The ‘blood moon’ in Houston: Stay up late at the George for a stunning celestial show

A total eclipse of the Moon will occur very early Tuesday morning, April 15. Houstonians will be able to see the whole event, which begins just before 1 a.m. You’ll be able to see the evening’s cosmic events unfold even under city lights, but if you’d like a more detailed (and dare I say captivating) look at the eclipse, the George Observatory will be open all night long!

Lunar eclipses occur when the full Moon moves into the Earth’s shadow. The first part of the Earth’s shadow that the Moon will encounter is the penumbra. The penumbral shadow’s faintness means that sharp-eyed observers will notice only a slight dimming of the Moon between 11:55 p.m. on Monday night and 12:58 a.m. Tuesday. The Moon moves into the darkest part of the earth’s shadow, the umbra, at 12:58 a.m., and will be totally eclipsed by 2:06 a.m.

The Moon’s brightness during a total eclipse depends on the amount of dust particles in the atmosphere. A large amount of dust from a volcanic eruption, for example, can make the totally eclipsed Moon almost invisible.

With little dust in our atmosphere, the Moon glows reddish-orange during totality.

This is because only the Sun’s red light comes through the Earth’s atmosphere and falls on the Moon even while it is in the Earth’s shadow. As the diagram shows, the Moon will pass through the southern part of the shadow, for about 78 minutes of totality. As a result, the northern limb, closer to the center of Earth’s shadow, will appear darker.

We’ll see our next total lunar eclipse in Houston just before dawn on October 8, 2014 (the second of four occurring between 2014 and 2015!).

For more on how lunar eclipses work, watch the video below from NASA and USA Today.

The planet Mars at night is big and bright, deep in the heart of April

Editor’s note: Press play on the SoundCloud track to really get in the Mars mood while you read.

April is the best month in 2014 to see our blushing cosmic neighbor, Mars! And you’ll definitely want to make a trip out to the George Observatory this Saturday for a Mars Viewing Party from 3 p.m. to 10 p.m. Take a peek at the marvelous Red Planet while you make the best of this opportunity away from city lights, using some great equipment among cheery fellow astro-enthusiasts.

But what makes April 2014 so special? Here are some reasons (and dates) to make sure you take advantage of the best viewing opportunities:

STUCK IN THE MIDDLE WITH YOU

On April 8, Mars reaches opposition, something that only happens every 26 months. This means that Earth (and therefore you and me) will be right in between the Sun and Mars. This creates some great viewing opportunities, since Mars rises as the Sun sets and will be up all night long.

SO CLOSE YOU CAN TASTE IT

Because of their elliptical orbits, Earth and Mars will be at their closest on April 14. If the planets’ orbits were perfectly circular, they would always reach their closest points at opposition. However, since Mars’ orbit is more eccentric (more egg-shaped, less circular) than Earth’s, this point of closest approach is happening just after opposition.

The closer we are to an object in space, the bigger and brighter it appears to us. So as we approach our closest point to Mars, the planet’s luminosity (brightness) will appear to increase.

WANDERING STARS

The word planet derives from the ancient Greek word for “wandering star.” This apparent “wandering,” or retrograde motion, happens whenever Earth reaches opposition with an outer planet, and then passes it due to our orbit closer to the sun. As we approach and then pass Mars, it will appear to move backward in the sky in relation to the stars behind it, then continue on its regular path across the sky.

This retrograde motion was one of the first reasons people began to question the Earth-centered model of the universe. If Earth was at the center of everything, and stars existed in crystal domes above it, why would these planets move differently? No clear reason was apparent until we realized planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun.

So if you keep your eye on Mars this month, you will have the chance to see one of the earliest questions in astronomy for what it really is – and that’s really awesome.

Mapping of Mars’ retrograde motion from Earth’s point of view

For the best chance to catch a glimpse of Mars, make sure you come out to the George Observatory this Saturday from 3 p.m. to 10 p.m.!