Seeing Stars with James Wooten: The Stars of Spring are Rising

March star report
Mars remains in the west at dusk this month as it moves through Pisces. Mars continues to fade a little each night as Earth continues to leave it farther behind. After this month, Mars begins to be lost in the glare of the Sun.

Venus is in the west at dusk. Venus overtook Mars on February 21; now watch Venus leave behind the much dimmer Mars throughout March.

Jupiter was up all night long in February; now it is high in the east as soon as night falls. Jupiter outshines all stars we ever see at night, so it will be obvious in the east at dusk.

Saturn is in the south at dawn.

Brilliant winter stars shift towards the southwest during March. Dazzling Orion is almost due south at dusk. His three-starred belt is halfway between reddish Betelgeuse and bluish Rigel. Orion’s belt points up to Aldebaran in Taurus the Bull. To Orion’s upper left are the twin stars Castor and Pollux, marking the heads of Gemini, the Twins. You can find Sirius, the brightest star we ever see at night, by drawing a line from Orion’s belt towards the horizon. To Orion’s left, about level with Betelgeuse, is Procyon, the Little Dog Star.

From Sirius, look a little bit to the right and then straight down to the horizon. If your southern horizon is clear of clouds and tall earthly obstacles, you’ll see Canopus, the second brightest star ever visible at night. This star is so far south that most Americans never see it and many star maps made in the USA omit it. (You must be south of 37 degrees north—the latitude of the USA’s Four Corners—for Canopus to rise). As you view Canopus, keep in mind that the sky we see depends on our latitude as well as on time of year and time of night.

Joining the winter stars are stars of spring rising in the east. Look for Leo, the Lion at dusk. Later in the evening, extend the Big Dipper’s handle to ‘Arc to Arcturus’ and then ‘speed on to Spica’; these stars rise at about 10:00 in early March but by 9pm on the 31st.

full-moon-21

Moon Phases in March 2015:

Full March 5, 12:05 pm
Last Quarter March 13, 12:48 pm
New March 20, 4:38 am
1st Quarter March 27, 2:43 am

Sunday, March 8, is the second Sunday of the month. Accordingly, Daylight Saving Time begins at 2:00 am on that date. (Officially, the time goes from 1:59 to 3:00 am). Don’t forget to spring forward!

At 5:45 pm on Friday, March 20, the Moon is directly overhead at the equator. This is therefore the vernal equinox. On this date everyone on Earth has the same amount of daylight and the same amount of night. The common statement that day equals night on this date would be true if the Sun were a point in our sky. Since the Sun is a disk about half a degree across in our sky, day is slightly longer than night on the equinox. For us, this is the ‘official’ start of spring; our days will continue to lengthen until the longest days of June usher in summertime. Below the equator, it is autumn, and days will continue to shorten until winter begins in June.

The New Moon of March 20 blocks the Sun, casting its shadow on the Earth. This results in a solar eclipse. Unfortunately, the shadow traces a path in the North Atlantic between Iceland and Scandinavia, making the eclipse inaccessible to us.

Click here for the full Planetarium Schedule

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.

There’s a Partial Solar Eclipse Happening October 23: Here’s what you need to know to see it!

 

There’s a partial solar eclipse happening Thursday, October 23 and you can see it all from Houston*!

 The New Moon of Thursday, October 23, 2014, aligns with the Sun and the Earth well enough to cast its shadow towards Earth. However, no one will see a total eclipse for two reasons. First of all, the Moon was at apogee (greatest distance from Earth) on October 18, and is therefore smaller than usual in our sky. As a result, it is not quite big enough to cover the Sun, and the only eclipse possible would be an annular eclipse. Also, the Moon shadow is aligned to a point in space just over the Earth’s upper limb, so nobody will even get to see an annular eclipse. The near miss, however, allows the penumbra, where the Moon partially blocks the Sun, to land on the Earth. With North America near the upper limb of the Earth at the time, Houston will be within the penumbra. Therefore we will see a partial solar eclipse, in which the Moon will cover almost a quarter of the Sun’s disk at most.

partialeclipse

At 4:59pm CDT, look for the Moon to take a ‘bite’ out of the Sun’s disk. The Moon covers the northern limb of the Sun, which is the right side of the Sun as it sets in the west. Maximum eclipse, with the Moon covering almost 1/4 of the Sun’s disk, is at 5:58.  At 6:43, the Sun sets while still in partial eclipse. After this, the next partial solar eclipse visible from Houston occurs August 21, 2017. 

ECLIPSE TIMES

Eclipse begins: 4:59 PM, CDT
Mid-eclipse: 5:58 PM
Sunset: 6:43 PM

The Museum’s own George Observatory in Brazos Bend State Park will be open to the public from 1:00 -6:00 p.m. on October 23 for observing the Sun and, starting at 5:00, the eclipse.  

*CAUTION: Never look directly at the Sun with the naked eye or through an unfiltered telescope. Permanent eye-damage will result. 

Blood Moon Strikes Back! Total Lunar Eclipse Wednesday, October 8!

A total eclipse of the Moon will occur early Wednesday morning, October 8. Houstonians will be able to see virtually the whole event, which happens right before dawn.

Lunar eclipses occur when the full Moon moves into the Earth’s shadow. The first part of the Earth’s shadow that the Moon will encounter is the penumbra. The penumbral shadow’s faintness means that sharp-eyed observers will notice only a slight dimming of the Moon between 3:14 AM and 4:15 AM. The Moon moves into the darkest part of the earth’s shadow, the umbra, at 4:15 AM, and will be totally eclipsed by 5:24 AM. Totality lasts until 6:25, at which time the Moon has crossed the shadow and begun emerging from the other side. The Moon is still emerging from the shadow (and thus still partially eclipsed) as it sets at 7:26.  Note that this eclipse happens close to dawn, which is when a Full Moon is about to set. Therefore, you’ll need an observing site clear of obstacles to the west so you can watch the setting Moon in eclipse.  (That’s why we’re not observing from George Observatory, as we have in the past. Our tree line would interfere with the view).

Eclipse Diagram - James Wooten

The Moon’s brightness during a total eclipse depends on the amount of dust particles in the atmosphere. A large amount of dust from a volcanic eruption, for example, can make the totally eclipsed Moon almost invisible. With little dust in our atmosphere, the Moon glows reddish-orange during totality. This is because only the Sun’s red light comes through the Earth’s atmosphere and falls on the Moon even while it is in the Earth’s shadow. As the diagram shows, the Moon will pass through the northern part of the shadow, for about an hour of totality. As a result, the southern limb, closer to the center of Earth’s shadow, will appear darker.  And since we’ll be watching the Moon set in the west, the northern limb will be to the right and the southern limb to the left.

This is the second of four consecutive total lunar eclipses in 2014 and 2015, all of which are visible in the USA.  We’ll see our next total lunar eclipse in Houston just before dawn on April 4, 2015.

 

Seeing Stars with James Wooten: The Equinox Approaches

This star map shows the Houston sky at 10 pm CDT on September 1, 9 pm CDT on September 15, and dusk on September 30.  To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom.  The Summer Triangle is high overhead.  This consists of the brightest stars in Cygnus, Lyra, and Aquila.  Scorpius, the Scorpion, is in the south, with the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius to his left.  From the Big Dipper’s handle, ‘arc to Arcturus’ in the west.  Mars pulls away from Saturn in the southwest.  The Great Square of Pegasus is in the east, heralding the coming autumn.

This star map shows the Houston sky at 10 pm CDT on September 1, 9 pm CDT on September 15, and dusk on September 30. To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom.
The Summer Triangle is high overhead. This consists of the brightest stars in Cygnus, Lyra, and Aquila. Scorpius, the Scorpion, is in the south, with the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius to his left. From the Big Dipper’s handle, ‘arc to Arcturus’ in the west. Mars pulls away from Saturn in the southwest. The Great Square of Pegasus is in the east, heralding the coming autumn.

This month, Mars remains in the southwest at dusk this month as it pulls away from Saturn. Mars continues to fade a little each night as Earth continues to leave it farther behind. Mars is near Antares in Scorpius by the end of the month.

Saturn is now lower in the southwest at dusk. It drops into the Sun’s glare late next month.

Venus is now getting harder to see, as it will pass behind the Sun late next month. You can still look for it very low in the east in dawn twilight.

Jupiter is now higher in the east at dawn; it is the brightest thing there until Venus rises. 

The Big Dipper is left of the North Star, with its handle pointing up. From that handle, you can ‘arc to Arcturus’ in the west at dusk. 

Antares, brightest star of Scorpius, the Scorpion, is in the southwest, with the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius due south. The Summer Triangle is high overhead. The stars of summer are here.  Look for the Great Square of Pegasus rising in the east, indicating that fall is approaching.

Moon Phases in September 2014:
1st Quarter:
September 2, 6:11 am
Full: September 8, 8:38 pm
Last Quarter: September 15, 9:05 pm
New: September 24, 1:12 am

At 9:29 pm on Monday, September 22, the Sun is directly overhead at the equator; everyone in the world has the same amount of daylight. This, then, is the autumn equinox.  For us the days, which have been getting shorter since June 20, actually become shorter than the nights after this equinox. In the Southern Hemisphere, day becomes longer than night and spring begins. 

Click here for the Burke Baker Planetarium Schedule. 

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.

 

 

Clear Skies!