HMNS Weekly Happenings

Lecture – Archaeological Legacy of Poverty Point by Diana Greenlee

Factory-made modern cutting implements versus hand crafted, all natural paleo-cutlery (Image Credit: Gus Costa, The Flintstone Factory

Factory-made modern cutting implements versus hand crafted, all natural paleo-cutlery (Image Credit: Gus Costa, The Flintstone Factory

A remarkable earthworks complex that was built and occupied by American Indians from about 1700 to 1100 BCE in what is today northeast Louisiana is designated Poverty Point World Heritage Site. Some archaeologists refer to Poverty Point as the “New York City” of its day because it was so huge, sophisticated and out-of-character compared to everything else going on at that time. Trading hub, engineering marvel, monument to ingenuity—the original configuration included five earthen mounds; six nested, c-shaped, earthen ridges that served as the habitation area; and a flat interior plaza.

Although it is not the oldest or the largest mound complex in North America, it stands out as something special—a singularity—because of its scale and design, and because the people here lived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild foods. Also, because there was no naturally occurring rock at the site, tons of stone for tools and other objects were brought in over distances up to 800 miles. At Poverty Point, we can glimpse a reflection of humanity that no longer exists.

This program is co-sponsored by Fort Bend Archeological Society and Houston Archeological Society.

October 4, 2016 at 6:30pm

Tickets $18, Members $12

 

Coming Soon!

Lecture – Deep Life: The Hunt for Hidden Biology of Earth, Mars, and Beyond by Tullis Onstot

Photo by NASA

Photo by NASA

Taking us to the absolute limits of life–the biotic fringe–where scientists hope to discover the very origins of life itself, Dr. Tullis Onstott of Princeton University will explain how geomicrobiologists are helping the quest to find life in the solar system by going to uncharted regions deep beneath Earth’s crust. The recent discoveries of exotic subsurface life forms are helping understand the possibilities of life in the Universe. Book signing following lecture.

October 12, 2016 at 6:30pm 

Tickets $18, Members $12

Lecture – Houston and the Civil Rights Movement by Rev. William Lawson

houston

 

On the forefront of the Civil Rights movement, Reverend William Lawson and his wife Audrey founded Houston’s Wheeler Ave. Baptist Church in their home in 1962 while he was serving as Professor of Bible at the new Texas Southern University. Join Rev. Lawson in conversation with his daughter Melanie Lawson for special evening recounting key moments in his campaign for civil liberties, including organizing Houstonians to travel to the March on Washington and his friendship and working relationship with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

October 17th, at 6:30pm

Tickets $18, Members $12

 

HMNS Weekly Happenings

Cultural Feast – Oktoberfest: The History and Science of Beer

st-arnold

In 1810, King Ludwig I of Bavaria proclaimed that the last sixteen days of September, ending with the first full weekend in October, should be set aside for feasting and beer drinking. To commemorate this tradition, join HMNS at St. Arnold Brewing Co. for the history and science of beer making. Tour St. Arnold³ production facility with founder Brock Wagner and special guest Scott Birdwell of DeFalco’s Home Wine and Beer. Drink your fill of brew and enjoy Bavarian pretzels and sausage.

 

Hosted at St. Arnold Brewing Company. 21 and up only.

Tickets $59, Members $49

Advance ticket purchase is required by September 25. No refunds will be made 72 hours before the event, however tickets can be transferred to another individual. Please notify webmaster@hmns.org with your name, transaction number, and name of the guests using your tickets.

 

Lecture – Archaeological Legacy of Poverty Point by Diana Greenlee

Factory-made modern cutting implements versus hand crafted, all natural paleo-cutlery (Image Credit: Gus Costa, The Flintstone Factory

Factory-made modern cutting implements versus hand crafted, all natural paleo-cutlery (Image Credit: Gus Costa, The Flintstone Factory

 

A remarkable earthworks complex that was built and occupied by American Indians from about 1700 to 1100 BCE in what is today northeast Louisiana is designated Poverty Point World Heritage Site. Some archaeologists refer to Poverty Point as the “New York City” of its day because it was so huge, sophisticated and out-of-character compared to everything else going on at that time. Trading hub, engineering marvel, monument to ingenuity—the original configuration included five earthen mounds; six nested, c-shaped, earthen ridges that served as the habitation area; and a flat interior plaza.

 

Although it is not the oldest or the largest mound complex in North America, it stands out as something special—a singularity—because of its scale and design, and because the people here lived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild foods. Also, because there was no naturally occurring rock at the site, tons of stone for tools and other objects were brought in over distances up to 800 miles. At Poverty Point, we can glimpse a reflection of humanity that no longer exists.

This program is co-sponsored by Fort Bend Archeological Society and Houston Archeological Society.

October 4, 2016 at 6:30pm

Tickets $18, Members $12

 

Coming Soon!

Lecture – Deep Life: The Hunt for Hidden Biology of Earth, Mars, and Beyond by Tullis Onstot

Photo by NASA

Photo by NASA

 

Taking us to the absolute limits of life–the biotic fringe–where scientists hope to discover the very origins of life itself, Dr. Tullis Onstott of Princeton University will explain how geomicrobiologists are helping the quest to find life in the solar system by going to uncharted regions deep beneath Earth’s crust. The recent discoveries of exotic subsurface life forms are helping understand the possibilities of life in the Universe. Book signing following lecture.

October 12, 2016 at 6:30pm 

Tickets $18, Members $12

Layers of the Earth: A Classroom Activity

Photo by NASA

Photo by NASA

From the core to the crust, the Earth is a pretty big deal. It has a diameter of about 6,400 km, and it is made of various layers that help change the surface of the earth. These layers are defined by either what they are made of or how they move. When we look at the chemical composition of each layer, we are defining them as compositional layers. The compositional layers are the crust, the mantle and the core. When we look at the mechanical properties of the layers, we are defining them as the mechanical layers. The five mechanical layers are the lithosphere, the asthenosphere, the mesosphere, the inner core and the outer core. Although we only see the outermost layer of the earth, we have learned a lot about the layers underneath by looking at seismic waves and various rocks at the surface. 

The three compositional layers of the earth are defined by significant changes in chemical composition. The outermost layer is the crust. It is the thinnest layer making up only about 1 percent of the earth. The crust is mostly made of elements like silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), oxygen (O), sodium (Na) and minerals made of these elements. The crust can be subdivided into two types – oceanic crust and continental crust. Oceanic crust tends to be thinner (approx. 5-10km thick) than continental crust and younger too! Continental crust is on average 30 km thick, and contains the oldest rocks and minerals. Both types of crust cover the entire outer portion of the earth. Below the crust lies the mantle (approximately 2,890 km thick.) The mantle is made of silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) like the crust, but it also contains large amounts of iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg). The final compositional layer of the earth is the core (approx.3,480 km thick). The core is made of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni). It is under intense pressure and high temperatures, and it is the densest layer of the earth. Although these layers may share common elements, the contents differ enough to create the distinct layers.

The five mechanical layers of the earth are defined by how the layers move. The layers can be described as rigid, plastic or liquid in consistency. The outermost mechanical layer is the lithosphere. The lithosphere is rigid, and it includes the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. The lithosphere is divided into the tectonic plates, areas of continental crust and/or oceanic crust that move and shift over time. The tectonic plates of the lithosphere move and shift on the plastic layer called the asthenosphere. The asthenosphere is under more pressure than the lithosphere and has a higher temperature. It is considered plastic because the rock has the ability to flow more than a rigid layer, but not as easily as a liquid layer.  The rock in the asthenosphere could melt if exposed to the surface, but it is under extreme pressure causing it to flow like a plastic. The mesosphere is the layer below the asthenosphere. The mesosphere is hotter than the asthenosphere, but it is rigid because it is experiencing more pressure than the layers above. The last mechanical layers of the earth are found in the core. The core is split into the outer core and the inner core because the two layers differ in rigidity. The outer core is liquid iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni). The flow of the outer core creates and sustains the earth’s magnetic field. Unlike the outer core, the inner core is solid. The inner core is made from mostly iron (Fe), but it can also contain nickel (Ni) and traces of precious elements like gold (Au). It is extremely hot, and under extreme pressure from the layers of the earth and atmosphere around it. All of these layers work together to make our dynamic earth!

Create a foldable Earth with the activity below to teach students about the various layers of the earth. To learn how the asthenosphere moves tectonic plates or learn about the natural disasters caused by that movement, check out our new Earth Science on Wheels topic Dynamic Earth!

final product edit

This project models two different ways to understand the layers of the earth. It addresses the compositional layers of the earth, and the mechanical layers of the earth.

Materials:

all the supplies edit

Procedure:

  1. Pass out template to each student.
  2. Instruct students to cut out the Earth. Once they have cut the outside, tell them to cut along the dashed line that says “cut here.”
  3. Next, fold along the “Fold line.” Then, set the Earth aside.
  4. Now, tell students to cut out the quarter circle labeled A. This will represent the mechanical layers of the earth.
  5. Invite students to color each of the areas in the quarter circle a different color starting from the inside:
    1. Yellow – inner corre
    2. Orange – outer core
    3. Red – mesosphere
    4. Pink – asthenosphere
    5. Purple – lithospherecut and colored edit
  6. Have students set aside the mechanical layers (A.) for now
  7. Instruct students to cut out the second quarter circle (B.) from the template sheet. These will represent the compositional layers of the earth. Invite students to color each of the sections a different color:
    1. Yellow – core
    2. Red – mantle
    3. Brown – crust
  8. Have students set aside the compositional layers (B.) for now
  9. Instruct students to glue the earth, to the background paper. Remind them to not glue down the flap.
  10. Tell students to place the mechanical layers (A.) on the background paper underneath the flap and glue it to the paper.
  11. They should then take the quarter circle that represents the compositional layers (B.), and place it on the backside of the flap of the Earth. Then, carefully glue it to the back of the flap.
  12. Once completed, show students how to flip up the flap and see the mechanical layers on the background page and the compositional layers on the back of the flap. Students can add notes to the layers to help them learn what the layers do!

Seeing Stars with James Wooten: Exciting Rare Mercury Transit Next Monday!

May Starmap

Jupiter is now high in the south at dusk. It outshines all stars we ever see at night, so you can’t miss it.

Mars and Saturn become late evening objects this month. Tonight, May 2, Mars rises in the southeast at 9:48 p.m. while Saturn comes up soon afterwards, at 10:24 p.m. By May 15, though, both planets rise during twilight, and on Memorial Day both are in the southeastern sky as soon as it gets dark. Mars and Saturn are still above the distinctive pattern of Scorpius, the scorpion. As you watch them rise, Mars is to the upper right and is much brighter.

In fact, this month, Mars outshines all of the stars and even rivals Jupiter in brightness! That’s because on May 22, Earth passes between the Sun and Mars. That alignment is called ‘opposition’ because it puts Mars opposite the Sun in our sky, making Mars visible literally all night long. It also makes Mars much brighter than normal in the sky, since we’re as close to it as we’ll ever get until Earth overtakes Mars again in 2018. Saturn comes to opposition June 3.

Venus is lost in the Sun’s glare and out of sight all month.

A swath of brilliant winter stars sets in the west at dusk. Orion, the Hunter, is still visible in the west as May begins. His two dogs, represented by Sirius and Procyon, are to his left.  Gemini, the Twins, are above Orion. The Big Dipper is above the North Star, with its handle pointing to the right. From that handle, you can ‘arc to Arcturus’ and then ‘speed on to Spica’; those stars are high in the east and in the south, respectively, at dusk. Leo, the Lion, passes almost overhead at dusk.

As Orion and his dogs set, look for Antares, the brightest star in Scorpius, the Scorpion, to rise in the southeast. Saturn and Mars will rise with the Scorpion’s head, above Antares. At the same time, Vega, brightest star of the Summer Triangle, appears low in the northeast. These stars remind us that summer is on the way.

Moon Phases

Moon Phases in May 2016:

New: May 6, 2:30 p.m.

First Quarter: May 13, 12:02 p.m.

Full: May 21, 4:14 p.m.

Last Quarter: May 29, 7:12 a.m.

Mercury Transit:

On Monday, May 9, 2016, Mercury overtakes Earth on its much faster orbit. This time, though, when Mercury passes Earth, the alignment is almost exact, such that Mercury appears in silhouette against the sun’s disk. This event is known as a transit of Mercury. Keep in mind that the planets are almost, but not exactly, in the same plane. Indeed, Mercury’s orbit is the most inclined — tilted up to 7 degrees from Earth’s orbital plane. That’s why Mercury does not usually transit the sun when it overtakes Earth. Monday’s event is therefore rare and special, occurring only 14 times in the 21st century (the next one occurs Nov. 11, 2019).

Transit_of_Mercury_May_9_2016_path_across_sun

Thus, weather permitting, the Houston Museum of Natural Science has arranged for volunteers from local astronomy clubs to set up solar telescopes outside our museum’s main entrance, near the sundial, to show you the transit. Mercury, already in the sun’s disk by sunrise in Houston, takes until 1:42 p.m. to cross to the other side of the sun’s disk. If skies cooperate, we’ll observe the transit from 10 a.m. until 1:42 p.m. on Monday, May 9. If there are sunspots on the sun’s disk while Mercury is there, Mercury will stand out because its disk is fully round and because Mercury moves noticeably across the sun’s disk during the hours we’re watching.

We will observe the sun (and Mercury in silhouette) through telescopes with filters especially designed to filter the sun safely, and by projecting the sun’s image onto a screen. These are the only two ways to observe the Sun safely. Please do not try to observe the sun directly or through an unfiltered telescope, as this will lead to permanent eye damage or blindness. Our common sense tells us this because we always avert our eyes when we accidentally turn towards the Sun. When something cool happens on the sun, some of us try to override our common sense, and there is no reason to do so. Come observe safely with us.

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. As of now, George is closed which Brazos Bend State Park dries out from last month’s floods, and is scheduled to reopen May 10. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.