Jupiter comes to opposition on March 8, which is when Earth aligns with Jupiter and the Sun. That is why Jupiter is up all night long in early March. Face east in evening twilight to watch Jupiter rise. It outshines all stars we ever see at night, so you can’t miss it. Early risers will still see Jupiter setting in the west at dawn.
Venus is in the southeast at dawn, appearing lower to the horizon each morning this spring. Venus outshines all the stars we see at night, and in fact outshines everything but the Sun and the Moon. However, now it doesn’t rise until morning twilight, and will soon become lost in the Sun’s glare. How long can you follow it?
Mars is in the south at dawn. Noticeably reddish in tint, Mars continues to brighten each day until its opposition in May; it has now surpassed nearby Saturn in brightness.
Saturn is in the south at dawn, above the distinctive pattern of Scorpius, the scorpion. Mars slowly approaches Saturn this month.
Brilliant winter stars shift towards the southwest during March. Dazzling Orion is almost due south at dusk. His three-starred belt is halfway between reddish Betelgeuse and bluish Rigel. Orion’s belt points up to Aldebaran in Taurus the Bull. To Orion’s upper left are the twin stars Castor and Pollux, marking the heads of Gemini, the Twins. You can find Sirius, the brightest star we ever see at night, by drawing a line from Orion’s belt towards the horizon. To Orion’s left, about level with Betelgeuse, is Procyon, the Little Dog Star.
From Sirius, look a little bit to the right and then straight down to the horizon. If your southern horizon is clear of clouds and tall earthly obstacles, you’ll see Canopus, the second brightest star ever visible at night. This star is so far south that most Americans never see it and many star maps made in the USA omit it. (You must be south of 37 degrees north—the latitude of the USA’s Four Corners—for Canopus to rise). As you view Canopus, keep in mind that the sky we see depends on our latitude as well as on time of year and time of night.
Joining the winter stars are stars of spring rising in the east. Look for Leo, the Lion at dusk. Later in the evening, extend the Big Dipper’s handle to ‘Arc to Arcturus’ and then ‘speed on to Spica’; these stars rise at about 10:00 in early March but by 9pm on the 31st.
Moon Phases in March 2016:
Last Quarter Mar. 1, 5:11 p.m.; Mar. 31, 10:17 a.m.
New Mar. 8, 7:54 p.m.
1st Quarter Mar. 15, 12:03 p.m.
Full Mar. 23, 7:01 a.m.
The New Moon of March 8 actually blocks the Sun, causing an eclipse of the Sun! However, it is visible only in Indonesia and the Pacific, where it will be March 9.
The Full Moon of March 23 passes though the penumbra, in which Earth partially blocks the Sun, but misses the true shadow or umbra. The resulting penumbral eclipse is only barely noticeable.
Sunday, March 13, is the second Sunday of the month. Accordingly, Daylight Saving Time begins at 2:00 am on that date. (Officially, the time goes from 1:59 to 3:00 am). Don’t forget to spring forward!
At 11:30 pm on Saturday, March 19, the Sun is directly overhead at the equator, shifting northward. That makes this the vernal (spring) equinox for us. Beginning on this date, day is longer than night for us in the Northern Hemisphere. Meanwhile, below the equator, days are shortening and now day is shorter than night. It is autumn down there.
On Friday, March 11, the brand new Burke Baker Planetarium re-opens to the public. Over Spring Break, come join us and enjoy images sharper than in any other theater!
On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.
James G. Wooten
Houston Museum of Natural Science