Tired from a long journey, faded monarchs seek homes for the next generation

My friends Bob and Bev photographed this very faded, tattered female monarch flying around the milkweed plants in their backyard near the Museum last week. The butterfly is a migrant from Mexico, looking for places to lay her eggs as a last hurrah before she dies.

Detail of a healthy monarch’s wing

The monarch we found with faded, damaged wings

The monarch we found with faded, damaged wings

She must be very tired!

Last fall, she flew from somewhere in eastern North America all the way to central Mexico, where she spent the winter mostly in hibernation. A few weeks ago, she and the other overwintering butterflies, sensing the lengthening days and warming temperatures, left the shelter of the sanctuary’s trees and headed back north to complete the journey. They are just now getting to Texas.

This old girl’s eggs will hatch and — if they have enough milkweed — the caterpillars will mature and pupate. Then, when they emerge as adult butterflies, at least some of them will continue the journey north. By July, monarchs will have reached the northern limit of their range. These summer generations don’t live as long, and don’t travel nearly as far.

P1070759If you see worn and faded monarchs at this time of year, they are almost certainly migrants returning from their winter in Mexico. You can help them to fulfill their “purpose” by providing nectar for their last few meals, and more importantly, milkweed for the new generation. These returning migrants will only last a few days now that they’ve gotten here — they are on their last “wings” after nearly nine months of life, and at least 2,000 miles of travel.

P1070760

A healthy Monarch Butterfly

Butterflies will blow your mind: A new Giant Screen Theatre film gives viewers new respect for migrating Monarchs

If you — like me — have long thought of butterflies as delicate, simple creatures, you have been sorely mistaken.

A new Giant Screen Theatre film, Flight of the Butterflies, opens tomorrow and frames familiar Monarch butterflies in a new light as masters of migration. The film follows the life’s work of Dr. Fred Urquhart and his wife in stunning 3D as they tag and track the migratory patterns of Monarch butterflies. After 40 years of tracking and thanks to the  help of thousands of citizen scientists, the Urquharts were finally able to unlock the mystery of Monarch migration and identify their winter gathering place in remote mountaintops of Mexico.

Flight of the ButterfliesAnd it’s not just the visual spectacle that’s stunning. Did you know that a super-butterfly is born every third generation that lives longer and flies farther than its predecessors? Or that this Super Generation that makes the extended trek from Canada all the way to Mexico can fly as much as mile up in the air, catching rides on the wind? It challenges your perception of butterflies as erratic, delicate things, that’s for sure. They’re marksmen; weathering one of the longest migrations on earth to target an isolated mountaintop they’ve never even seen with incredible accuracy. Even our great state of Texas is featured, in all its bluebonnet-blanketed glory.

Make it a butterfly-filled weekend with the Semi-Annual Plant Sale and you can even establish a garden to help these guys along! For a schedule of showings, click here.

Tagging Monarchs at HMNS

Today Soni (CBC horticulturist) came down to my office and said “You should see all the monarchs in the outdoor butterfly garden. They must be part of the fall migration. Why don’t we tag them?”’

Surely by now most people are aware of the amazing migration undertaken each year by the fall generation of monarch butterflies. As the temperatures cool and the days shorten, monarchs emerging from their chrysalids are cued to head south. Somehow they “know” that their survival depends on it. Before winter sets in, millions of individuals – basically the entire eastern population – start to fly southwest, towards the remote mountain sites in central Mexico where they will spend the winter hanging on the branches of fir and pine trees.

Soni and net
Soni netting butterflies

The spring and summer generations behave very differently. After emerging from its chrysalis, one of the first things a new butterfly typically does is look for a mate (“nature abhors a virgin” as my friend Phil DeVries would say). Mated females search for milkweed plants on which to deposit their eggs; males look for more females! These fair-weather generations probably live for a month or so as adults. The autumn generation, however, does not mate, but saves its energy for the long journey ahead. As fall approaches, butterflies stock up on nectar, packing on fat for the flight and for several months of hibernation.

At the northern edge of the population (southern Ontario/northern Great Lakes area), the migration starts in late August, with butterflies flying on average about 50 miles a day and picking up more migrants as they travel south. By early to mid October, monarchs are streaming through Texas. Virtually the entire eastern population passes through our state – but most of the migrating butterflies pass to the west of us, through Dallas and Austin and San Antonio, then over to Del Rio and into Mexico. Since fewer butterflies typically pass this way, the coastal migration route is not as well known. All the more reason for us to get out there and tag!

monarch tag
How to tag a monarch

Monarch researchers began tagging monarchs back in the early 70s, even before anyone knew where the migrating monarchs were ending up (the roost locations were discovered in 1975). Tagging data collected over the years has enabled us to map the distribution of the population, and to understand that a single generation makes the long trip south and then heads north again after spending the winter, largely dormant, in Mexico. This is hard for some people to understand, especially given that most butterflies only live for a few weeks. The migrating/hibernating monarchs may live as long as eight or nine months.

tag instructions
Tagging instructions from Monarch Watch

The monarchs’ arrival at the overwintering grounds typically coincides with Dia de los Muertos (November 1, Day of the Dead), an important fall festival in Mexico. Some locals apparently see the orange and black visitors as the spirits of their dear departed relatives, returning to celebrate the day. This is not as far-fetched as it may seem; throughout history humans have used butterflies as symbols of the soul and/or reincarnation. Did you know that the word “pysche” in ancient Greek meant both “butterfly” and “soul”?

But back to the present, and Houston. It was a beautiful afternoon so we all trooped outside, armed with nets, pens, data sheets, and numbered tags purchased in advance from Monarch Watch, a non-profit organization based at the University of Kansas that coordinates monitoring efforts. Soni also took a roll of scotch tape and some microscope slides. She is checking the butterflies for OE (short for Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), a sporozoan parasite. If present, the parasite spores can be seen under a compound microscope (they are much smaller than butterfly scales). If there are enough of them in a caterpillar’s body, these parasites can spell death for the butterfly. Luckily, parasite loads are typically low in migrating individuals – perhaps butterflies weakened by the parasites simply can’t make the long journey.

OEtest
Taking scale sample for OE test

Lots of monarchs were coming around the corner of the Butterfly Center, dipping down to our outdoor butterfly garden and stopping to sip nectar from the blooms (they especially seemed to like wheat celosia and purple porter weed). Then they’d head off towards the Sam Houston statue and on in the direction of Rice University (southwest of us!). We caught 11 butterflies in the garden (and missed many more), tagged them (noting whether male or female), took a scale sample, and released them. Off they flew!

We’ll send in our data to Monarch Watch, and of course we hope that someone will find one or more of our tagged butterflies on the roost in Mexico. It is highly unlikely – given the millions of monarchs at the roost – but tagged butterflies (usually dead ones) do get found and reported. If one of ours is found, Monarch Watch will contact us – and they/we will know that butterflies do migrate to Mexico from our area.

tag team
Tag team

Local butterfly gardeners know that a number of monarchs stay in Houston over the winter. We often don’t have killing freezes here, and the recent craze in butterfly gardening means that there is lots of Mexican Milkweed aka Butterfly Weed around.  This plant, Asclepias curassavica, is a perennial from Central America; unlike our native milkweeds, it does not die back in the winter months. Also, predatory wasps, which take many caterpillars during the summer, are mostly gone – so if it doesn’t get too cold, Houston is a good place for monarchs to spend the winter. However, these butterflies are taking the risk of dying should we have a strong cold snap as we did last year.

Here are two great websites with information about these amazing butterflies and about how to get involved monitoring their migration: Monarch Watch at www.monarchwatch.org and Journey North at www.learner.org/jnorth/.

Big Bite Nite Video Series: The Science of Food

Fine dining is not new to the Houston Museum of Natural Science. From our Cultural Feasts to our annual Gala and many other events hosted here throughout the year, it’s all in our nature.

Now, we’re starting something new for culinary explorers — Big Bite Nite. This April 30, experience Houston’s most prominent restaurants; meet some of the city’s top chefs; and explore the intricacies of cuisine from our spotlight country: China (we’re getting excited about our upcoming blockbuster exhibition, Terra Cotta Warriors). Restaurants include Polo’s Signature, Post Oak Grill; 17 Restaurant, The Capital Grille; The Grove; Monarch; Quattro; Ruggles Green; Morton’s, The Steakhouse; YAO Restaurant and Bar; and many more. 

Inspired by the mouth-watering smorgasbord set to spring up at the Museum April 30, we thought it would be fun to give you a taste of what you will experience at this special event, with (naturally) a science twist.

So, we did what we often do. Erin and I packed up our video camera and asked a few of the chefs whom you will see at Big Bite Nite to give us a rare behind the scenes look in their kitchen as they experiment with their delectable creations.

After all, food is a science. And no one knows this better than our very own Kat Havens. After reviewing the menu from Polo’s Signature, our first stop, she had the brilliant idea to make butter. The steps aren’t complicated – as you will see in the video – but the science that goes into this simple condiment is amazing! Afterwards, she asked Polo Becerra, Culinary Director, and Adam Puskorius, Executive Chef, to create a dish using the butter she produced. See what they cooked up for us by clicking below (press the red HQ button for the highest quality version).