Lucy’s Great Mystery: Part 2

Big Cats Everywhere:
Fast Cats,  Semi-Saber Cats, Super-Fast Cats. Not to Mention the Super-Hyenas!

In Part One we learned the frightening facts: Lucy was surrounded by formidable felines. She was too slow to run away and she didn’t have weapons to repel 150 pound leopards or 500 pound  homothere saber-tooths.

Actually – we left some facts out. The predator situation was even worse then what we discussed in the last article.  Lucy’s world had even more kinds of meat-eaters to fear:

Cheetahs
These speedsters have greyhound-like limbs, very long and tipped with nails, not claws. Cheetahs sacrifice climbing ability for acceleration and velocity on the ground. Living cheetahs are leopard size – 120 lbs average. But in Lucy’s time cheetahs were as big as modern lions.

Semi-Saber Tooths – Dinofelis
These felids had the slinky bodies of leopards with an enlarged upper fang. Their saber teeth weren’t as long or as sharp as a Sword Tooth cat but were far larger than in any modern cat.

Sword-Tooth Saber Cats – Smilodonts
These are the chunkiest, most heavily muscled saber-tooths.  In Lucy’s time, smilodonts grew to jaguar size, were heavier than a leopard, but had even more massive forearms and paws. Climbing would be excellent but speed on the ground was slower than a lion’s.  The upper fangs were much longer than those in a Dagger-Tooth homothere.

Lucy would have had to deal with Hyenas too……

The feline situation looked bad enough. The hyenas made it much, much worse.

s-cats-hyenColorRSmallLucy’s time saw the maximum diversity among the African  Hyena clan. Today, the most advanced pack hunter is none other than the Spotted Hyena, Crocuta crocuta. This is a matriarchal hunter. The biggest males don’t rule. Mom does. The alpha female is bigger, smarter and scarier than the males and she makes most of the decisions. Her sisters are next in charge. The Spotted Hyena has a close-knit social structure, and the dominant females are needed to keep order. It works to the kids’ advantage. If  Mom-Hyenas dies, her sisters will help raise the orphans. Hyena clans fan out and go after zebra and antelope, even water-buffalo and young rhinos. The Hyenas run and run and run. They’ve got great stamina.

Super-Crusher Hyena
Lucy had to watch out for Pachycrocuta, what I like to call the Super-Crusher-Hyena. This monster was a close kin of today’s Spotted Hyena but weighed almost as much as a lion – 300 pounds. And the Super-Crusher had jaws with even greater bone-smashing power than in the Spotted Hyena.

A clan of Super-Crusher-Hyenas would have instilled fear even in the biggest Saber-Tooth Cat.

Wolf-Hyena
In Lucy’s time there was a Hyena menace we don’t have today. It was Chasmaporthetes, the Wolf-Hyena. A Wolf-Hyena, seen from a hundred yards away, would look like big-headed Timber Wolf – long-legged, fast, and graceful. Up close, you’d see the Hyena family design. The paws were more compact than a wolf’s and the jaws had meat-cutting teeth were longer and sharper. And there weren’t any big molars in the rear of the mouth. Wolves and coyotes use those rear molars to crunch berries and fruit and other vegetable food. The Wolf-Hyena was more of a pure carnivore.

The Wolf-Hyenas must have been the nightmare of mid-sized hoofed stock, and primates of all sizes, including our Lucy.

Can’t Bite Back.   What defenses Did Lucy Have?

IMG_0876.JPG
Creative Commons License photo credit: rdicker

Chimps and baboons can bite back. They have big canine teeth, especially large in the males. A 90 pound baboon or ape is a nasty close-in fighter. Leopards and hyenas can get terrible wounds from ape and monkey teeth.

But not Lucy.  When australopithecines evolved from apes, the canine teeth got small. Lucy had much poorer dental weapons than what her ape ancestors had.

Final Conclusion:

Let’s roll-play again…..,you’re Lucy or her mate. You weigh 60 to 90 pounds. What do you do when a pack of Wolf Hyenas come over the hill? You can’t out-run them. You might be able to fight off just one Wolf-Hyena, but not a pack of a dozen.

Let’s say by some miracle you get away from the Wolf Hyena clan – then a Giant Cheetah comes at you at 55 mph.

Or you’re resting and a Semi-Saber Tooth Cat attacks. Or a smilodont?

You haven’t a chance….

Old Theories Are Missing Something.

BUT….Lucy and her family did get away, again and again and again. They lived long enough to mate and raise kids and evolve.

How did they do it?

What do you think?

Lucy’s Great Mystery: How Could Australopithecus Survive and Evolve Into Us?

Part One:

She Should Have Been Caught and E A T E N !

Lucy evolved into us. Really, really (to quote “Shrek.”)

Her species, Australopithecus afarensis, or something extremely close, changed over three million years to become Homo sapiens – the species that includes you and me.

So we should treat Lucy with respect…….

….but wait.  There’s a problem. It shouldn’t have happened. Lucy and her whole species should have been gobbled up by a legion of voracious, bloodthirsty carnivores! She shouldn’t have had any time to evolve at all.

Darwin Makes Sense (usually)

Evolution should be logical – when we have enough data. Textbooks used to say that Lucy evolved from an ancestor who was built like a chimp. But Lucy’s knee and ankle and hip bones were NOT chimp-shaped. The design of Lucy’s joints is very close to what we have – so we know that Lucy walked upright, on just her hind legs, with left and right knees close together.

s-Parade-Blog-ColorFine.  Did leg evolution make Lucy better?  Faster? That’s what we’d expect. But it looks like evolution made Lucy  s l o w e r !  Chimps run very fast and can change direction in an instant. These apes zip around on all fours, running on their knuckles. A modern human has great difficulty catching a running chimp – I know, I used to be a zoo-keeper in charge of three boisterous chimps.

Lucy couldn’t match chimps in speed and maneuverability. Since she walked just on her hind legs, her arms were useless dead weight in running. Plus – she was very short in the legs. Her shins and thighs were far shorter than in modern humans. She was not nearly as fast as we are today.

Why would evolution make Lucy slower?

Lucy – Evolved for Holding Babies on the Open Plains?

The standard theory said that Lucy’s upright posture was fit for moving across savannah, open grassland with scattered trees. She could walk for hours and use her hands to hold her babies or an armful of fruit or a big Pliocene salad or whatever.  Meanwhile, her chimp ancestors stayed in the forest. Sounds good……except we have a huge problem. The savannahs were occupied by a whole host of predators  who would love to eat Lucy and her kind.

In fact, Lucy was evolving during the worst possible time. The australopithecine clan evolved between 5.8 to 1.8 million years ago. This interval produced the scariest variety of big feline meat-eaters the world has ever seen.  Here’s what was out there, ready to catch Lucy and her kin.

Leopards
s-Kitties-Blog-ColorLLeopards are stealth felines who lived with Lucy. They had short, wide paws, flexible legs and body. That’s a build excellent for climbing rocks, hiding in burrows, ascending trees – and sudden ambush! Body weights went from 50 lbs to 200 lbs.

Lions & Tigers
Lucy’s neighbors included lion-like cats, huge predators up to 500 lbs, with massive paws that could swat down a water buffalo. Legs were longer, straighter than a leopard’s and speed over level ground was higher. Because of the great weight, climbing was less agile than a leopard’s.

Dagger-Tooth Saber Cats – Homotheres
Lucy’s world was jam packed with saber-toothed cats. The biggest were the Dagger-Tooths, who were built like a cross between a cheetah and a leopard, with long legs, excellent for fast running with some climbing. Sizes ranged from up to 500 lbs. The jaws were like a rattlesnake’s. They opened so wide that the upper fangs were exposed and ready for action. The upper fangs were long, wide blades with very sharp, saw-toothed edges. Homotheres slashed and stabbed so deeply they could kill an elephant.

Long, muscular necks let saber-cats swing their head down like a battle-ax.

How could Lucy avoid these deadly cats?

Imagine that you are Lucy. You’re waking along the savannah, carrying a load of  melons. Then, without warning…..WHAM!  A leopard leaps on you, bites your neck, and you are leopard-kibbles. Or….you’re resting on a rock when…..WHAM!  A pride of lions jump you and tears you apart. Or….you’re plucking figs from a fig tree when…a Dagger-Tooth jumps up from the tall grass. You try to run as fast as you can….but in ten seconds…WHAM! Zip-Zap!  The cat slices you into bite-sized pieces.

Lucy Defended Herself With Spears?

An old theory says that Lucy’s kind used spears and rocks for defense. But that notion doesn’t work. We find no stone tools at all with Lucy’s bones, not a spear point or a stone knife.  How about a wooden spear? Chimps today make mini-spears from twigs and impale bugs and little furballs. Sure, Lucy might have picked up a branch and chewed the end to make a point.

But if Lucy poked a  Dagger-Tooth in the butt with her spear, she’d only make him mad.

No, wooden spears aren’t enough to drive away lions and leopard and saber-toothed cats.

Conclusion: Lucy and All Her Kind Should Have Been Massacred by The Big Cats.

We’re left with a big problem. How did Lucy get away?

Please! Help our Lucy!!!!!

Send in your suggestions about how to avoid predators!

Interested in learning more about Lucy? Check out my previous blog posts on Australopithecus afarensis migration.

Lucy’s Monstrous Misfits II: Upside-Down Mastodon

Dr. Bakker’s series on Lucy continues below. Check out  Part 1: Lucy – Out of Africa. Not! and Part 2: Lucy’s Monstrous Misfits: The Moose-Giraffe.

Why did some of Lucy’s neighbors score big bio-geographical successes, spreading over many continents?

Three More Cases: Hairy Monsters With Tusks & Trunks

Elephant bull 2
Creative Commons License photo credit:
Tambako the Jaguar (on the sea)

The Order Proboscidea includes all elephant and elephant kin – large to giant to super-giant herbivores with long upper lips transformed into trunks, plus long tusks. Tusks can sprout from the upper jaw or the lower jaw or both jaws.

Regular Short-Tusked Mastodons – “The Ohio Incognitum”

Regular Mastodons were the first fossil Proboscidea to be discovered – way back in the early 1700’s.  The legs looked like elephants’. The teeth looked like giant pig teeth.  Explorers in the Ohio Valley called the monster the “Unknown  Creature (Incognitum) from Ohio.” Formal name: Mammut.

By the late 1700’s full skeletons showed the whole beast – it was very like an elephant but shorter with a low forehead and short, stout upper tusks.  Lucy lived with Regular Mastodons who were very close to the Ohio Beast.

Regular Mastodons – The Long-Tuskers (Anancines)

DeinoAnancine copyLiving side by side with the Ohio Regulars in Lucy’s Africa was a close relative: The Long-Tusked Regulars. Technical name: the Anancine mastodons. In the Anancines, the super-long tusks stuck out so far we’d expect the beast to trip itself if it ran fast.

Upside Down Mastodon.

Now for the maximum weirdness among proboscideans: the Deinotheres.  Large to super large, Deinotheres had a long, long history in Africa, beginning way before Lucy or any other australopithecine. Body was elephantine – but the feet were small, with tiny side toes and three big ones in the middle.

The astonishing feature was the curved tusks. They were upside down. Instead of being in the upper jaw and curving up, the way they did in all normal mastodons, Deinothere tusks curved down and were in the lower jaw.

What good were upside-down tusks?

Old-timer scientists speculated:

“Maybe they hauled themselves out onto ice flows, like walruses do.”

Wrong. Deinotheres never lived in cold regions.

“Maybe they killed their prey with a downward jab.”

Wrong.  Deinothere molars were vegetable choppers, designed to munch big leaves and branches. All deinotheres were vegetarian.

“Maybe they used the tusks to cash down onto branches to break them off.”  “Maybe they fought each other in the mating season.”

Maybe.

World MapDeino

As global travelers, Deinotheres are intriguing. They were like hippos. Deinotheres spread over Europe and India and China. But they never conquered Siberia and never entered the New World, via the Bering Land Bridge.

Makes you think……

Why?

Lucy’s Monstrous Misfits: The Moose-Giraffe

Dr. Bakker’s series on Lucy continues below. Check out Part 1: Lucy – Out of Africa. Not!

Our Lucy and her kin were surrounded by hairy monsters – there were more kinds of multi-ton mammals than at any other time in Darwinian history.

Lots looked “normal.” There were a half-dozen species that were elephant-shaped, more or less. And there were rhinos, both black and white, who would look perfectly acceptable today in the Bronx Zoo.

Then there were the Evolutionary Misfits.  These fellows seemed put together from the front half of one species and the rear from another – with odd legs and horns thrown in.

Perfect Misfit Example – The Moose Giraffe

Sivathere copyThis beast was first discovered in Pakistan and northern India where it was christened “Sivatherium” – for the Hindu God Shiva.  The Moose-Giraffe did look like something out of a mythological-theological  fantasy. Sivatheres were the tallest and fastest of the maxi-monsters, up to fifteen feet or more, hoof to eyeballs. Their body was bulky, in the elephant size-range.  Sivatheres were faster than elephants – they had long, strong legs that combined features of Cape Buffalo and a giant moose. If Lucy ever saw a bull sivathere charging downhill in a hurry, she’d have to get out of the way, fast.

Sivatheres had moose-muzzles. The upper lip and nostrils were carried in a bulbous, muscular schnoz that could grab branches or lift out water plants from ponds.

When Antlers are Not Antlers

At a distance, you’d think sivatheres carried moose-antlers, heavy bone growths that branched and re-branched.  One difference: both male and female sivatheres had them (only male moose today are antlered.) And…if you got close, you’d see something else that was un-moose-like. There was no drop-spot. Moose are deer, and all deer shed their antlers after the breeding season. The main antler falls off, leaving a stub attached to the skull. There’s a rough zone on the top of the stub where the main antler is shed and a new one will grow up next year.

Sivatheres had no drop-zone. Their “antlers” kept growing and growing, all through life.

Therefore – we can’t call the sivathere horny growths “antlers.” We have to call them “horns.”

Plus – Moose Giraffes have too many horns. There are the big, tall, branched things in the rear. And then smaller, sharper, pointier horns in front. Those front horns look like……giraffe horns.

Horns – Hard on the Inside, Soft on the Outside

Beautiful Giraffe
Creative Commons License photo credit: Rennett Stowe

That was the tell-tale clue. Details of teeth told the same story. Sivatheres were part of the giraffe family and NOT moose relatives. Giraffes today grow horns like a sivathere’s but smaller and less complicated. The giraffe family builds their horns in a unique way. Most horned beasts today – antelope, cows and buffalo – have an inner horn made out of bone and an outer horn made out of very hard, tough, dead skin. Giraffe horns are built differently: there’s an inner bone horn but on the outside is a layer of soft skin.

What kind of outer horn did sivatheres have? Skin rots before fossilization. Still, we can tell what kind of covering sivathere bone horns had. Sivathere fossil horns have the same texture on the outside that giraffe horns do – a pattern of small pits, for blood vessels. This texture proves that sivathere horns had soft-skin on the outside.

World MapColSiva copyNo Entry Into the New World

Sivatheres are a geographic puzzle. They spread all over India and Pakistan and Central Europe, then down through Africa. But they avoided northern Asia and Europe. And Moose-Giraffes were shut out of North America.

Why?

If we can figure out what stopped sivatheres, we’d have help figuring out Lucy’s travels.