Seeing Stars with James Wooten: the Comet ISON & the end of Daylight Saving Time

Only one more month left in the year!

In November, Venus remains in the west at dusk. It outshines everything but the Sun and Moon, so you can begin observing it during deep twilight.

Jupiter is high in the morning sky this month. Look for it high in the west at dawn.

You can also look for Jupiter in the late evening sky in the east. It rises by 11:10 p.m. on November 1, and by 8:10 p.m. on November 30.

Mars, much dimmer than Jupiter, now pulls away from it in the morning sky. It now brightens a bit in the east at dawn.

Saturn is behind the Sun (at conjunction) on November 6, and thus out of sight most of the month. By Thanksgiving, you can try finding it low in the southeast at dawn.

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This star map shows the Houston sky at 10 p.m. CDT on November 1, 8 p.m. CST on November 15, and 7 p.m. on November 30. To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom. The Summer Triangle is high in the west. This consists of the brightest stars in Cygnus, Lyra, and Aquila. The ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius sets in the southwest, with Venus to its right. Pegasus, the Flying Horse, is high in the east. To the south and east, we see a vast dim area of stars known as the “Celestial Sea,” where only Fomalhaut stands out.

This month, the Big Dipper is to the lower left of the North Star at dusk, and soon sets. As a result, it may be hard to see if you have trees or buildings north of you. As the Big Dipper sets, though, Cassiopeia rises. This is a pattern of five stars in a distinct W shape which lies directly across the North Star from the Big Dipper. Look for Cassiopeia high in the north on fall and winter evenings.

Perhaps the most significant sight in our skies this month will be Comet ISON. That’s perhaps because ISON has never been in the inner solar system before and will never come back, so astronomers are unsure how it will behave.

There is some optimism, however, that ISON will brighten enough to be visible to the naked eye as it approaches the Sun this Thanksgiving Day. On Thanksgiving, when ISON is at its brightest, it will be too close to the Sun to observe. But you might notice it low in the southeast at dawn in the weeks leading up to Thanksgiving Day. You’ll be looking for a dim, diffuse object, so you’ll want to pick a site far from city lights and a morning with little or no moonlight. ISON passes close to the Star Spica on November 17.

With the help of the Internet, you can track ISON’s position, or view ISON’s full path.

If ISON survives perihelion this Thanksgiving (it has about a 50/50 chance), we could see it quite well between Thanksgiving and Christmas. I’ll have more on this in the December update.

Moon Phases in November 2013:
New:  November 3, 6:48 am
1st Quarter:  November 9, 11:58 pm
Full:  November 17, 9:15 pm
Last Quarter:  November 25, 1:29 pm

Sunday, November 3, is the first Sunday of the month. Accordingly, Daylight Saving Time ends at 2 a.m. that morning. (At 2 a.m., the time reverts to 1 a.m., such that the 1 a.m. hour happens twice). Remember to set all clocks back one hour on Saturday night, November 2, and enjoy your extra hour of sleep!

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.

Seeing Stars with James Wooten: October’s “intermission” in the sky & Astronomy Day

The night sky in October is full of comings … and goings.

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Venus remains in the west at dusk. It outshines everything but the Sun and Moon, so you can begin observing it during deep twilight.

Saturn leaves the evening sky this month. For the first few days of October, you can look for it in evening twilight to the lower right of Venus. After mid-month, though, it’s hard to see. Saturn is behind the Sun (at conjunction) on Nov. 6.

Jupiter is higher in the morning sky this month. Look for it high in the south at dawn.

Mars, much dimmer than Jupiter, now pulls away from it in the morning sky. It remains in the east at dawn. On the morning of Oct. 15, look for it near Regulus in Leo.

In October, the Big Dipper is to the lower left of the North Star at dusk, and soon sets. As a result, it may be hard to see if you have trees or buildings north of you.  As the Big Dipper sets, though, Cassiopeia rises. This is a pattern of five stars in a distinct W shape, which lies directly across the North Star from the Big Dipper. Look for Cassiopeia high in the north on fall and winter evenings.

Autumn represents sort of an “intermission” in the sky, with bright summer stars setting at dusk, while bright winter stars have not yet risen. The “teapot” of Sagittarius sets in the southwest at dusk. The Summer Triangle is high in the west.  Meanwhile, the Great Square of Pegasus is in the east, indicating the start of autumn. The stars rising in the east are much dimmer than those overhead and in the southwest, because when you face east at dusk in October, you face out of the Milky Way plane.

The center of our galaxy lies between Scorpius and Sagittarius, while the Summer Triangle is also in the galactic plane. Pegasus, on the other hand, is outside the plane of our galaxy and is a good place to look for other galaxies.

october13Moon Phases in October 2013:

New                         October 4, 7:33 p.m.

1st Quarter              October 11, 6:03 p.m.

Full                           October 18, 6:36 p.m.

Last Quarter            October 26, 6:41 p.m.

The full moon of Oct. 18 enters the penumbra, a region in which Earth partially blocks the Sun. Unlike the full shadow (umbra), however, the penumbra only imperceptibly darkens the Moon.

Sat., Oct. 12, is our annual Astronomy Day at the George Observatory, which lasts from 3 to 10 p.m. at our observatory in Brazos Bend State Park. See here for a full list of activities.

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer.  If you’re there, listen for my announcement.

Seeing Stars with James Wooten: February 2013

Mercury briefly enters the evening sky this month. Greatest elongation (the greatest apparent distance from Sun) is February 16, so that’s when you’ll see it the longest.  However, you can begin looking in a few days. Because Mercury sets soon after the Sun, you’ll need a perfectly clear horizon right over the point of sunset at dusk.  On February 8, Mercury passes less than one degree from Mars, which is on its way out of the evening sky.

Jupiter was up all night long last month and is now almost overhead at dusk. Opposition, when Earth passed directly between Jupiter and the Sun, was January 3. Face high in the south at dusk and look for the brightest thing there (unless the Moon is also there), as Jupiter outshines all stars we ever see at night.

Sky Map: February 2013

Venus now rises while dawn brightens the sky; its morning apparition is ending. Soon Venus willl pass around the far side of the Sun from our perspective, and then reappear in the evening by summer.

Saturn remains in the morning sky this month. Look for it in the south-southwest at dawn.

Brilliant winter stars dominate the southern skies of February. Dazzling Orion is almost due south at dusk. His three-starred belt is halfway between reddish Betelgeuse and bluish Rigel. Orion’s belt points up to Aldebaran in Taurus the Bull. This winter the Bull also contains Jupiter.

Rising with Orion, and far to his left, are the twin stars Castor and Pollux, marking the heads of Gemini, the Twins. You can find Sirius, the brightest star we ever see at night, by drawing a line from Orion’s belt towards the horizon. To Orion’s left, about level with Betelgeuse, is Procyon, the Little Dog Star.

From Sirius, look a little bit to the right and then straight down to the horizon.  If your southern horizon is clear of clouds and tall earthly obstacles, you’ll see Canopus, the second-brightest star ever visible at night. This star is so far south that most Americans never see it, and many star maps made in the USA omit it. (You must be south of 37 degrees north—the latitude of the USA’s Four Corners—for Canopus to rise).

As you view Canopus, keep in mind that the sky we see depends on our latitude as well as on time of year and time of night.

Moon Phases in February 2013:
Last Quarter                  February 3, 7:57 am
New                               February 10, 1:22 am
1st Quarter                    February 17, 2:30 pm
Full                                February 25, 2:28 pm

The New Moon of February 10 is the second New Moon after the winter solstice.  Accordingly, it marks Chinese New Year. On this date the Year of the Dragon ends and the Year of the Snake begins.

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.

To enjoy the stars in any weather from the comfort of the HMNS Planetarium, click here for a full schedule.

Would you like email updates on current events in the sky, at the planetarium, and at the George Observatory?  If so, send an email to astroinfo@hmns.org.

Seeing Stars with James Wooten: November 2012

Mars remains an evening object. It is low in the southwest at dusk.

Jupiter, still high in the west in the morning sky, is also becoming a late evening object. It is not up right at dusk just yet, but it already rises by 8:30 p.m. (and thus before 7:30 next week after DST ends). By the end of the month, it rises by 5:27 p.m., only moments after sundown. Opposition, when Earth is directly between Jupiter and the Sun and Jupiter is up literally all night long, is Dec. 3.

Seeing Stars with James Wooten: November 2012

Venus remains in the east at dawn, continuing a spectacular morning apparition.

Saturn slowly emerges into the morning sky this month.  After the 15th, try looking for it in the east-southeast under brilliant Venus. Venus and Saturn are very close on the mornings of Nov. 26 and 27.

The Summer Triangle now shifts towards the west as the Great Square of Pegasus appears higher, approaching the zenith. When facing the Great Square or especially south and east of that, we face out of the plane of our galaxy, a direction where there are fewer bright stars. That’s why the large expanse of sky rising under Pegasus seems devoid of bright stars. For this reason, ancient Babylonians designated this broad area of sky as the ‘Celestial Sea’, and filled it watery constellations. The only bright star in this whole expanse of our sky is Fomalhaut in the southeast, which marks the mouth of the Southern Fish.  Between the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius and Jupiter (in Taurus, the Bull), are dim zodiacal constellations including Capricornus, the Sea Goat; Aquarius, the Water Carrier; and Pisces, the Fish. The giant sea monster Cetus rises under Pisces.

Moon Phases in November 2012:
Last Quarter                  November 6, 6:36 pm
New                               November 13, 4:07 pm
1st Quarter                    November 20, 8:32 am
Full                                 November 28, 8:46 am

The New Moon of Nov. 13 actually passes exactly between the Earth and Sun, and thus casts its shadow on the Earth. This causes a total eclipse of the Sun. The path of totality passes nowhere near North America, however.  Rather, it begins in northern Australia and extends out over the Pacific.

That same New Moon also marks the Muslim New Year. Since Muslims begin their months with the first moon they actually see, their new year will actually begin a few days later, when the slender crescent becomes visible at dusk.

Sunday, Nov. 4 is the first Sunday of November. Accordingly, Daylight Saving Time ends on this date at 2:00 a.m.  (Officially, the time goes from 1:59 a.m. back to 1, such that the 1 a.m. hour happens twice.)  Don’t forget to set all clocks back one hour on Saturday night, Nov. 3, and enjoy your extra hour of sleep!

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.

To enjoy the stars in any weather from the comfort of the HMNS Planetarium, click here for a full schedule.

Would you like email updates on current events in the sky, at the planetarium, and at the George Observatory?  If so, send an email to astroinfo@hmns.org.