Are we there yet? Dr. John Kappelman discusses Africa and the human evolutionary journey at HMNS

In the history of mankind, there have been three major migrations: two of these happened a long time ago, and one (of the “one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” type) happened in our own lifetime. 

evolution astronautAbout 1.8 million years ago, hominids we call Homo erectus ventured outside Africa, wandering into Europe and Asia. Our own species evolved in East Africa around 200,000 years ago. About 50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens followed in Homo erectus’ footsteps, with significant numbers leaving Africa. Eventually they crossed Asia and made it all the way into the Americas.

Homo erectus model displayed at the Westfälisches Landesmuseum, Herne, Germany in 2007 (Image Wikimedia)

Homo erectus model displayed at the Westfälisches Landesmuseum, Herne, Germany in 2007 (Image from Wikimedia).

 On July 20, 1969, Homo sapiens marked another milestone, with the first step on the Moon. Today, we have a permanent presence in space, albeit it on a very limited scale. We have come a long way indeed.

Long before Homo erectus left Africa, other bipedal creatures roamed Africa. Among these was Australopithecus afarensis, a hominid first discovered in Ethiopia. In 1974, Donald Johanson and his team uncovered a well preserved specimen who was nicknamed Lucy, and shortly afterwards also Dinkenesh. 

AL 288-1, Australopithecus afarensis. Also known as “Lucy” or “Dinkenesh” (Image by Viktor Deak).

AL 288-1, Australopithecus afarensis. Also known as “Lucy” or “Dinkenesh”
(Image by Viktor Deak).

Lucy and her species have been the subject of many scientific studies. However, when she traveled to the United States for the second time in 2007 (the first time was in 1975, to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History), she underwent a scientific procedure never before applied to her: for 10 days, she resided on the campus of the University of Texas at Austin, where she underwent a high resolution CT scan.

The scanned data was handed over to the government of Ethiopia and Mamitu Yilma, director of the National Museum in Addis Ababa. The successful completion of Lucy’s scan meant that the specimen is now safely archived in digital format — one of the reasons behind the scanning.

A small but dedicated team participated in the scanning project in Austin: 

Members of the scanning team included (from left) Ron Harvey, conservator, Lincolnville, Maine; Alemu Admassu, curator, National Museum, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;  John Kappelman, UT Austin; and Richard Ketcham, UT Austin.  The team used the ultra high-resolution Xradia MicroXCT scanner (background), for some of the scans.

Members of the scanning team included (from left) Ron Harvey, conservator, Lincolnville, Maine; Alemu Admassu, curator, National Museum, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; John Kappelman, UT Austin; and Richard Ketcham, UT Austin. The team used the ultra high resolution Xradia MicroXCT scanner (background), for some of the scans.

Dr. John Kappelman has had a long-standing relation with the Houston Museum of Natural Science. He was one of many scientific advisors to the curator of anthropology when the exhibit featuring Lucy was prepared. His own research into human evolution is the topic of an upcoming presentation at the museum.

To find out if we are “there yet,” come listen to Dr. Kappelman on Tuesday, May 13 at 6:30 p.m.

HMNS Distinguished Lecture
The First Big Trip – Are We There Yet? Africa and the Human Journey
John Kappelman, Ph.D.
Tuesday, May 13, 2014, 6:30 p.m.
Click here to purchase advance tickets.

This lecture is cosponsored by Archaeology Institute of America – Houston Society as part of its 2013-2014 Innovations series.

Explore Evolution with Lucy’s Legacy

lucy-model-face

Lucy’s Legacy, an exhibition featuring the world’s most famous fossil, recently opened at Discovery Times Square Exposition in Times Square, New York. The exhibit will remain on display until October 25, 2009.

The Lucy exhibit has been an exciting catalyst for discovery, discussion, and debate within the scientific community. In this series of blogs, Dirk presents all sides of the controversy surrounding Lucy’s existence and significance while skillfully separating fact from fiction with supporting evidence and research.
  
Do you enjoy debate about scientific theories or issues? If so, prepare yourself for a great read while perusing the following blogs by Dirk. In addition to his perspective and logic, Dirk also provides links to research and evidence that will leave you on the edge of your seat…and excited about evolution!

-In fide constans… Always loyal [Lucy's Legacy]     
-Neanderthal Controversy
-A Letter From Lucy: Making no bones about it. (Pun intended)
-Lucy loves Houston – and she’s not leaving. Yet.
-If Humans came from monkeys, than why are monkeys still around?
-Evolution
 
 Neanderthals—most people know what they were, but do we know who they were or how they lived? Join Dirk as he discusses these unique people and their lifestyle.

-Neanderthal Controversy 
-Neanderthals on the move
-Neanderthals Speak Out

Why are genetics important in the development of humans? More than just appearance, genetics play a role in where we live and even how we survive. In the following blogs, Dirk explores where genetics has contributed to history and evolution. 

-Neanderthals on the move
-We are all mutants
-10,000 BC: The story behind the date
-A major step forward – 40,000 years ago

s-legacy-exhibitSure, they’re adorable and entertaining to observe but chimps and monkeys offer far more than that! They provide valuable information about human behavior and progress. Follow-up with these blogs and read Dirk’s presentation of our connection to these magnificent animals.

-Chimps using tools: Archaeology’s most fascinating discovery of 2007
-The Apple Doesn’t Fall Too Far from the Tree
-Monkey business
-If Humans came from monkeys, than why are monkeys still around?
  
The study of fossilized remains (like Lucy and other hominids) offers an exciting opportunity to draw parallels on our own existence and physicality. What did they look like and how did they live? Dirk has explored these questions in the following blogs:

-Discovering behavior: a step-by-step process
-Reconstructing ancient hominid behavior
-Lucy’s kitties
-Paleoanthropology: making the past come alive.
-Extinction doesn’t mean failure

If you ask a fossil to share the secrets it holds, it will provide invaluable information and insight into the past. But how can we piece the puzzle together? Dirk explains the wisdom of what happens when fossils meet modern technology…and dating begins (pun intended).

-How do we know: dating techniques
-Meet Lucy, Australopithecus afarensis. (What’s in a name?)
-Teeth Tell Tales
 
Want to find out more about Lucy’s home, Ethiopia? Click below and discover a wealth of history, culture and tradition.

-Timkat, an Ethiopian Epiphany celebration
-The Ark of the Covenant and Aksum