Seeing Stars with James Wooten: Two eclipses for the price of one!

Star Chart - October 2014

This star map shows the Houston sky at 10 pm CDT on September 1, 9 pm CDT on September 15, and dusk on September 30. To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom. The Summer Triangle is high in the west. This consists of the brightest stars in Cygnus, Lyra, and Aquila. The ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius sets in the southwest, with Mars to its right. Pegasus, the Flying Horse, is high in the east. To the south and east, we see a vast dim area of stars known as the Celestial Sea, where only Fomalhaut stands out.

This month, Mars remains in the southwest at dusk this month as it pulls away from Antares in Scorpius. Mars continues to fade a little each night as Earth continues to leave it farther behind

Saturn drops into the Sun’s glare by Halloween. See how long you can keep track of it as it appears lower and lower to the southwest horizon each night this month.

Jupiter is now higher in the east at dawn; it is the brightest thing there. 

Venus is passing behind the Sun and thus out of sight this month. Superior conjunction (Venus in line with the Sun, on the far side of the Sun) is on October 25.

In October the Big Dipper is to the lower left of the North Star at dusk, and soon sets. As a result, it may be hard to see if you have trees or buildings north of you. As the Big Dipper sets, though, Cassiopeia rises. This is a pattern of five stars in a distinct W shape which lies directly across the North Star from the Big Dipper. Look for Cassiopeia high in the north on fall and winter evenings.  

Autumn represents sort of an ‘intermission’ in the sky, with bright summer stars setting at dusk, while bright winter stars such as Orion have not yet risen.  The ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius sets in the southwest early in the evening. The Summer Triangle is high in the west. Meanwhile, the Great Square of Pegasus is in the east, indicating that autumn has begun. The stars rising in the east are much dimmer than those overhead and in the southwest because when you face east at dusk in October, you face out of the Milky Way plane. The center of our Galaxy lies between Scorpius and Sagittarius, while the Summer Triangle is also in the galactic plane. Pegasus, on the other hand, is outside the plane of our galaxy and is a good place to look for other galaxies. Nearby constellations Andromeda and Triangulum (a small triangle) contain the spiral galaxies nearest to our own. 

Total Lunar Eclipse October 8 + Partial Solar Eclipse October 23!
The Full Moon of October 8 enters Earth’s shadow completely, causing a total lunar eclipse!  Partial eclipse begins at 4:15 am, with totality from 5:24 to 6:25 am. The Moon then begins to leave the shadow, but is still partially eclipsed as it sets at 7:26 in Houston. This is the second of four total eclipses we can see in 2014-15; the next one occurs April 4, 2015.

The New Moon of October 23 partially blocks the Sun, causing a partial solar eclipse!  For us, the eclipse begins at 5:00 and is still in progress at sunset (6:43 pm). For both eclipses you’ll need a site with a clear view to the west to watch the setting Moon or Sun in eclipse. 

Moon Phases in October 2014:
First Quarter: October 1, 2:32 pm; October 30, 9:48 pm
Full: October 8, 5:50 am
Last Quarter: October 15, 2:12 pm
New: October 23, 4:55 pm 

Celebrate The George October 10-12!
The George Observatory celebrates its 25th anniversary the weekend of October 10-12!  That weekend, the observatory is open for a members event on Friday evening and Sunday night in addition to our customary Saturday night hours

Click here for the Burke Baker Planetarium Schedule.

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer.  If you’re there, listen for my announcement. 

Seeing Stars with James Wooten: The Equinox Approaches

This star map shows the Houston sky at 10 pm CDT on September 1, 9 pm CDT on September 15, and dusk on September 30.  To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom.  The Summer Triangle is high overhead.  This consists of the brightest stars in Cygnus, Lyra, and Aquila.  Scorpius, the Scorpion, is in the south, with the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius to his left.  From the Big Dipper’s handle, ‘arc to Arcturus’ in the west.  Mars pulls away from Saturn in the southwest.  The Great Square of Pegasus is in the east, heralding the coming autumn.

This star map shows the Houston sky at 10 pm CDT on September 1, 9 pm CDT on September 15, and dusk on September 30. To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom.
The Summer Triangle is high overhead. This consists of the brightest stars in Cygnus, Lyra, and Aquila. Scorpius, the Scorpion, is in the south, with the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius to his left. From the Big Dipper’s handle, ‘arc to Arcturus’ in the west. Mars pulls away from Saturn in the southwest. The Great Square of Pegasus is in the east, heralding the coming autumn.

This month, Mars remains in the southwest at dusk this month as it pulls away from Saturn. Mars continues to fade a little each night as Earth continues to leave it farther behind. Mars is near Antares in Scorpius by the end of the month.

Saturn is now lower in the southwest at dusk. It drops into the Sun’s glare late next month.

Venus is now getting harder to see, as it will pass behind the Sun late next month. You can still look for it very low in the east in dawn twilight.

Jupiter is now higher in the east at dawn; it is the brightest thing there until Venus rises. 

The Big Dipper is left of the North Star, with its handle pointing up. From that handle, you can ‘arc to Arcturus’ in the west at dusk. 

Antares, brightest star of Scorpius, the Scorpion, is in the southwest, with the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius due south. The Summer Triangle is high overhead. The stars of summer are here.  Look for the Great Square of Pegasus rising in the east, indicating that fall is approaching.

Moon Phases in September 2014:
1st Quarter:
September 2, 6:11 am
Full: September 8, 8:38 pm
Last Quarter: September 15, 9:05 pm
New: September 24, 1:12 am

At 9:29 pm on Monday, September 22, the Sun is directly overhead at the equator; everyone in the world has the same amount of daylight. This, then, is the autumn equinox.  For us the days, which have been getting shorter since June 20, actually become shorter than the nights after this equinox. In the Southern Hemisphere, day becomes longer than night and spring begins. 

Click here for the Burke Baker Planetarium Schedule. 

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.

 

 

Clear Skies!

Seeing Stars with James Wooten: The Summer Triangle is high in the sky

This star map shows the Houston sky at 10 pm CDT on July 1, 9 pm CDT on July 15, and dusk on July 31.  To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom. The Summer Triangle is high in the east.  This consists of the brightest stars in Cygnus, Lyra, and Aquila.  Scorpius, the Scorpion, is in the south, with the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius to his left.  Leo, the Lion, sets in the west.  From the Big Dipper’s handle, ‘arc to Arcturus’ and ‘speed on to Spica’ in the southwest.  Watch Mars close in on Saturn this month.

This star map shows the Houston sky at 10 p.m. CDT on July 1, 9 p.m. CDT on July 15, and dusk on July 31. To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom.
The Summer Triangle is high in the east. This consists of the brightest stars in Cygnus, Lyra, and Aquila. Scorpius, the Scorpion, is in the south, with the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius to his left. Leo, the Lion, sets in the west. From the Big Dipper’s handle, ‘arc to Arcturus’ and ‘speed on to Spica’ in the southwest. Watch Mars close in on Saturn this month.

This month, Mars is in the southwest at dusk this month. Mars continues to fade a little each night as Earth continues to leave it farther behind. Still, Mars rivals the brightest stars we see at night.

Saturn is also in the southwest at dusk. This month and next, Mars approaches Saturn more and more. 

Venus remains in the morning sky. Look east at dawn for the brightest point of light there; only the Sun and Moon outshine Venus. Venus remains a morning star for almost all of 2014.

Jupiter is behind the Sun and out of sight this month. 

The Big Dipper is left of the North Star, with its handle pointing up. From that handle, you can ‘arc to Arcturus’ and then ‘speed on to Spica’; those stars are in the west at dusk. Leo, the Lion, is setting in the west at dusk.

Antares, the brightest star of Scorpius, the Scorpion, is in the southeast, with the ‘teapot’ of Sagittarius rising behind it. The Summer Triangle has fully risen in the northeast. The stars of summer are here.  

Moon Phases in July 2014:

1st Quarter: July 5, 7:00 a.m. 
Full: July 12, 6:26 a.m.
Last Quarter: July 18, 9:09 p.m.
New: July 26, 5:42 p.m.

At about 7 p.m. on Thursday, July 3, Earth is as far from the Sun as it will get this year. This is aphelion, when Earth is 94.56 million miles from the Sun, as opposed to the average distance of 93 million miles. On January 4, Earth was at 91.44 million miles from the Sun; that was perihelion (closest approach to the Sun). It turns out that this variation in the Earth-Sun distance is too small to cause much seasonal change. The tilt of Earth’s axis dominates as it orbits the Sun. That’s why we swelter when farther from the Sun and shiver when we’re closer. 

Click here to see what’s happening this month in the Burke Baker Planetarium

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement. 

Clear skies!

The great balancing act: Stabilizing telescopes at the George Observatory

Editor’s note: This post is part two of our three-part series on how you helped us Save Our ‘Scope at the George Observatory. Read part one here.

Many have asked us how we are still using the large research dome at the George Observatory while the 36-inch mirror is in Iowa getting fixed. The simple answer is that we are continuing to use the 11-inch refractor, which is mounted on the side of the 36-inch telescope. The refractor has near-perfect lenses and is an incredibly high quality instrument in and of itself. The 36-inch mirror is best used for deep space objects, and the 11-inch refractor is best used for closer objects like we find in our solar system. Together, they work in tandem to make a remarkable team to view near and far.

The entire telescope grouping and mount weight approximately 10 tons. The 36-inch mirror weighed almost 500 lbs with the mirror and the center hub that holds it in place.  Because everything is so perfectly balanced, the motor to run the telescopes is approximately the size of a sewing machine motor. This delicate balance is also what keeps the telescope working properly. When we removed the more than 500 lbs. for the primary and secondary mirrors, the entire system was totally out of balance.

We were advised that glass is the same density as cement by our mirror expert.  With this piece of information and the help of Tracy Knauss, Paul Halford and Chris Randall, a plan was devised to make an exact replacement of the glass mirror out of cement. Paul located the materials and then Chris took over the project. He had scales and tools at his home and handily went about making the cement mirror.

First, Chris started with some rebar and a 36-inch sonotube.  

SOS Cement mirrorThen Brazos Bend State Park provided a fork lift to get it out of the truck.

SOS Cement mirror 2

SOS Cement mirror 4Then we had to get the 500-pound blank inside the building and placed underneath the dome so that it could be lifted three stories up into the dome and then installed.

SOS Cement mirror 6Here is the cement mirror blank installed in the real mirror cell.

SOS Cement mirror 9Finally, Tracy and Chris installed the cement blank into the back of the telescope casing where the real mirror will eventually be. By replacing the weight almost exactly, only a very few adjustments had to be made so that it was back in balance and able to support the 11-inch refractor again. 

With Jupiter, Mars and Saturn so prominent right now, this is the best ‘scope for viewing until the 36-inch returns to the George Observatory.

Save the Date: The George Observatory’s 25th Anniversary Celebrations
October 10, 2014: Members and donors event 
October 11 & 12, 2014:  Anniversary weekend. The Observatory will be open  from dusk until 11 p.m. Come look through the newly refurbished 36-inch Gueymard telescope that you helped save!