Hard currency: Stone money of the Yap Islands

We have all grown accustomed to seeing new forms of payment pop up every day. Cash is used less and less. To be “with the times” now requires making payments electronically, and invisibly. Actual tangible objects, such as coins or bills, are exchanged less and less. Instead, electrons silently move funds from one account to another. Payment is still made, but the way in which it is done has changed dramatically. This blog entry deals with a form of payment that is quite different from what we would consider normal in the Western world. How would you feel about making payments with stone money?

The inhabitants of the island of Yap do exactly that: they pay with stones. They also use shells as currency. Each one of these forms of payment has one thing in common: the exchange medium represents something rare, or something that requires hard work to obtain, thus making it valuable.

We will start out this blog by finding where in the world Yap is located. Then we will see how the Yapese made their stone money, and where they went to get the stone (you will be surprised). Finally, we will answer the question: is this still used today, or is it ancient history?Micronesia, Federated States of - . Map.

Yap Island is part of the Federated States of Micronesia. With a total surface of 271 square miles, the land area of the entire Federated States represents about four times the size of Washington, DC.Yap_IslandsYap Islanders use stone and shells as currency, or more specifically, as an “exchange valuable” (Fitzpatrick 2003:67). Yap stone money discs take the shape of a donut. They range in size from small (measuring just a few inches in diameter) to enormous (12 ft in diameter, 1.5 ft thick and weighing 8,800 lbs).

HMNS stone money

Stone money disk, Yap Island. (HMNS collection.)

The origin of these stone discs remains murky. Some researchers have suggested that the earliest stones, alleged to have been very small, might have imitated stone or shell beads (Fitzpatrick 2003:68).Stone_Money_of_Uap,_1903,_Jayne,_String_Figures,_p.160 The intrinsic value of such a Rai stone, as they are known among the locals, is based on the effort that went into quarrying it, the quality of its finish, and its history. The latter is important, if not a bit morbid. If it is known that a person lost his life while bringing the stone back to Yap, then the value of that stone increased (Fitzpatrick 2002:229; 2003: 77-79). You read this right: they brought the stones back to Yap. The stone used to make these money discs does not come from Yap Island. Rai stones were made from limestone (Fitzpatrick 2003:68, 116-124) from the islands of Palau, located 280 miles southwest of Yap Island. To a lesser degree, the Yapese also traveled in the opposite direction, to Guam, to quarry stone money (Fitzpatrick 2003:70). This was quite a feat. How was this done?Palau Islands

Excavations and radiocarbon dates have revealed that the quarrying activity took place in Palau (Fitzpatrick, 2002: 227, 239) at least several hundred years prior to European contact; it intensified shortly thereafter. About ten quarries in Palau from which the Yap islanders extracted their stone money have been recorded; more remain to be investigated (Fitzpatrick, 2003:8). One of these localities was Omis cave. It contained several unfinished money discs (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 138-160). Radiocarbon dates suggest that work in this cave was carried out during the historic period, going back around two to three centuries ago (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 159).

Work done by archaeologists in 1999 and 2000 identified at least 15 stone money discs in various stages of production in the vicinity of four quarries on the Island of Palau. Shellfish and other faunal remains were also found (Fitzpatrick, 2002: 228; Fitzpatrick, 2003:299).

As far as we know, Palauans never traveled to Yap to participate in trade; instead this was a one-way trade, with Yapese setting out for Palau and returning with the much desired stone money (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 6, 40).

Imagine setting out in your outrigger canoe to travel from Yap Island to Palau to mine stones and shape them into the stone donuts we have come to know. This process involved several stages (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 295-297).

Selecting the quarry: Yapese workers had to obtain permission from Palauan chiefs to quarry. Once they did, they would select a cave or rock shelter along the coast.

Perform carving: upon selecting a suitable deposit of limestone, a general shape was “roughed out.” This was done in situ, meaning the blocks were not hauled off to another area to be transformed.

Detailed carving: Yapese workers used gouges and chisels to create a flat and smooth surface. The disc was probably removed from the limestone deposit during or after this stage.

Abrasion/flattening: after the shape of the disc was complete, the surface was further flattened using a chisel made from shell, stone or iron.

Perforation: the disc was then perforated in the center. Oral traditions tell us this was initially done with coral and a fire drill. Later, iron tools were used.  

Polishing: this represents the final stage of the process. The use of an abrader, such as pumice, mixed with water resulted in a smooth finish of the stone’s surface.

Getting to Palau was one thing, returning with a heavy stone disc must have been quite an experience. First they would have to be brought down to the water’s edge. This is where the hole in the center comes in handy: a sturdy wooden pole would enable porters to lift it and move it to the beach.Yapese stone money for FSM

At least three modes of transportation were used to get the stone discs from Palau to Yap. The first form of transportation involved the traditional watercraft in this part of the world, a canoe, or two canoes in the case of a large stone. A late 19th century account relates that the stones had “a large hole in the centre through which a log is passed and this, when laid across two canoes, is sufficient to support the stone in transit.” (Le Hunte, 1883:25). Another approach seems to have been to fill the canoes with water, then load the disc and bail out the water (Fitzpatrick, 2003:311).

A second way of moving the stones involved rafts (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 310-311). A late 19th century illustration depicts a set of Rai money discs resting on a raft. Oral traditions on Yap mention how an early Yapese navigator was caught in a typhoon as he was trying to return home with several stones. We learn that the typhoon “[s]plit the canoes into pieces, and some of the rafts carrying the stones sank, and other rafts were separated from the canoes. But Anguman [the navigator] was able to bring some pieces on his rafts trailing after his canoes” (Fitzpatrick, 2003:73-74).Yap harbor

Investigations close to Omis Cave have revealed the presence a dock at the entrance to the cave. At high tide, the dock is almost fully submerged; at low tide, it is fully exposed. This would have “facilitated the loading of stone money onto watercraft. Rafts could be placed on or adjacent to the dock at low tide and discs moved or rolled on top and secured. At high tide the raft could then be maneuvered out of the shallow lagoon into the deeper channel for eventual transport back to Yap” (Fitzpatrick, 2003:146).

Not all stone discs made it to their destination. Some found a watery resting place. Modern divers have encountered many sunken stone discs in the waters of these islands; there must be many more resting on the bottom of the ocean.

A third form of hauling the stone money was with European ships (Fitzpatrick, 2002: 228; 2003:311-312). This form of transportation allowed many more stones to be shipped safely to Yap. By the late 1800s Yap was inundated with stone money. The Yap islanders paid for these stones with copra (Fitzpatrick 2003:101). The Japanese counted over 13,000 disks during their administration in the 1930s. Typhoons, flooding, and the use of these stones as anchors and construction materials during WWII cut this number in half (Fitzpatrick 2002:229; 2003:111).

Transport by canoe and rafts depended on prevailing trade winds and open ocean currents. The best time to transport discs from Palau to Yap would have been between late April and the beginning of October. The ideal time for Yapese workers to come to Palau to prepare a load of money discs would therefore have been from September to February (Fitzpatrick, 2003:311 – 312).

Just in case you are wondering, the US dollar is now the common currency in Yap. The last stone disc was carved and brought to Yap in 1931 (Fitzpatrick 2003:111-112). From that moment on, the US dollar replaced it as commonly used currency. However, stone money is still used to this day for major transactions like payment of dowry or purchase of land. Moreover, small pre-contact discs are considered more valuable than larger post-contact discs (Fitzpatrick, 2003:302).

Because of their size and weight, the largest stones have not moved since the day they were brought ashore in Yap. We find them lining roads, propped up in front of a house, or standing in someone’s backyard. When transactions involving Rai money occur, ownership of the stone is transferred, but the stone itself does not move. People just know that someone else now owns it.

More prevalent and much easier to transport are the images of Rai money. As a symbol of Yap Island, they can be found on the island’s license plates.Yap license plate

Speaking of the stone money being a national symbol, one stone disc was presented on the inauguration of the Federated States of Micronesia (July 12, 1978).

Today they help draw and entertain tourists. On Yap Day, March 1st and 2nd (sic), strong island men carry “small change” around, much to the delight of assembled tourists.  Speaking of small change, the Houston Museum of Natural Science also has a small (but still heavy) example of this Rai money.

Much smaller and rarer than Rai money is Yapese shell currency. In earlier days, shell money served as small change. Two kinds of shell money existed: the mother-of-pearl (yar) and non-native Spondylus shell (gau) (Fitzpatrick, 2002: 228; 2003:7).

Fitzpatrick, Scott M., 2002. A Radiocarbon Chronology of Yapese Stone Money Quarries in Palau. Micronesica 34(2):227-242. [link].

2003. Stones of the Butterfly: An Archaeological Investigation of Yapese Stony Money Quarries in Palau, Western Caroline Islands, Micronesia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon. [link].

Le Hunte, J.R., 1883. Report of HMS Espiegle to Sir G.W. Des Voeux, Acting High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, 10 October 1883. General Proceedings (1-83). Central Archives of Fiji and the Western Pacific, Suva: Fiji.

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Mark Your Calendars for these events happening at HMNS 5/4-5/10

Bust out your planners, calendars, and PDAs (if you are throwback like that), it’s time to mark your calendars for the HMNS events of this week!

COI

Special Exhibition: Crystals Of India Closes May 10
HMNS at Sugar Land 
Discover the Crystals of India at HMNS at Sugar Land. Originating from India’s Deccan Plateau, a large geologic formation that comprises most of the southern part of the country, the exhibition features a never-before-seen collection of almost 50 of the most beautiful and most perfectly formed natural mineral crystals ever found anywhere in the world. The beds of basalt rock within which these crystals were formed and found, were created by massive lava flows from enormous volcanic eruptions that occurred more than 65 million years ago. Some paleontologists speculate that these massive volcanic eruptions may have even accelerated the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period.
*Each visitor to Crystals of India will receive a FREE crystal upon exiting the exhibition.*

Mother’s Day Sale Online
Exclusive Mother’s Day is around the corner, and we’ve put together a list of our top 10 gifts to make your shopping a bit easier. Spend $100 or more and get $25 off, FREE shipping, and a beautiful selenite heart as a FREE gift (while supplies last). Use promo code MOTHER. Sale ends Sunday, May 10. Shop now!

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Seeing Stars with James Wooten: Restored Gueymard offers views of brilliant Jupiter this May

Star Map May 2015Mercury is low in the west-northwest, below and slightly to the right. It remains visible for the first half of May before returning towards the Sun.

Venus is in the west at dusk. Look high over the point of sunset for the brightest thing there. 

Jupiter is now high in the west as soon as night falls. Jupiter outshines all stars we ever see at night, so it will be obvious when you look up at dusk.   

Saturn enters the evening sky this month. It rises May 1 by 9:40 p.m. By May 22, it is up literally all night; it rises at sundown and sets at sunrise. This is because Earth is aligned between the Sun and Saturn on that date. We therefore say that Saturn is at opposition. 

Mars is lost in the glare of the Sun.

A swath of brilliant winter stars sets in the west at dusk. Orion, the Hunter, is still visible in the west as May begins. His two dogs, represented by Sirius and Procyon, are to his left.  Gemini, the Twins, are above Orion. The Big Dipper is above the North Star, with its handle pointing to the right. From that handle, you can ‘arc to Arcturus’ and then ‘speed on to Spica’; those stars are high in the east and in the south, respectively, at dusk. Leo, the Lion, passes almost overhead at dusk.

As Orion and Taurus set, look for Antares, brightest star of Scorpius, the Scorpion, to rise in the southeast. Saturn will be right on the Scorpion’s head, above Antares. At the same time, Vega, brightest star of the Summer Triangle, appears low in the northeast. These stars remind us that summer is on the way.Phases10-9x-3w

Moon Phases in May 2015

Full: May 3, 10:42 pm

Last Quarter: May 11, 5:36 am

New: May 18, 11:13 pm

First Quarter: May 25, 12:19 pm

Click here for the Burke Baker Planetarium schedule.

In case you missed the news, the main telescope at George Observatory is once again fully operational. Thanks in large part to public support, we were able to get our mirror cleaned and then reinstalled. The newly refurbished mirror was opened to the public last weekend. Come join us on clear Saturday nights at the George!

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer.  If you’re there, listen for my announcement. I generally do one such tour on short May evenings.

Clear skies!

 

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Fear the Snail: Inside the vicious world of the predatory gastropod

So snails suck, right? They’re boring and slow and they don’t do anything cool. Some of them make pretty shells that you find on the beach, but they’re pretty much slimy and gross and basically not interesting at all.

Said no one ever. At least not those who understand the world and daily life of snails. They’re tough, vicious, and sometimes terrifying in their adaptations to help them feed and protect themselves, especially in the case of marine snails, which can be as varied in shape, size, and color as the imagination.

“There are about 30,000 known species of snail,” said Gary Kidder, HMNS Discovery Guide and snail expert. “They’re a ‘Walt Disney’ class: if you can dream it, they can do it.”

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Slipper snail radula. Credit: Eric Heuple

Known in the science community as gastropods, meaning literally “stomach foot,” snails feed using a rasp-like tongue called a radula. Like most animals, the teeth vary from species to species based on what particular type of food the snail eats. In carnivorous snails, these teeth are like fish hooks that tear the flesh from their prey. Imagine having your skin licked off by a giant cat’s tongue! Terrible.

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The largest snail shell in the world, on display in the Strake Hall of Malacology.

Snails are not always small; they can grow to be massive. The Australian trumpet, or Syrinx aruanus, produces shells that can be as big around as your thigh. Measuring more than 30 inches in length, the record-holder for biggest snail shell in the world is on display in the Strake Hall of Malacology at the Houston Museum of Natural Science. It looks like you could fit a football inside this bad boy.

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Lightning whelk. Credit: DixieHwy

Predatory snails use some barbaric tactics to kill and eat their prey. There’s no saving a bivalve caught by a lightning whelkBusycon perversum (incidentally, the state shell of Texas). The lightning whelks pries open clams, wedging its soft foot between the halves of its shell, then it uses its radula to scrape out the clam a piece at a time. Kind of like a stranger kicking down your door and coming into your house to get you. Frightening.

That’s just the beginning. The moon snail, in the family Naticidae, bores into the shells of mollusks and crabs with its radula and an acid secretion. That’s right: acid. It melts a tiny hole through its prey and licks out its insides with its tongue. No thank you!

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Moon snail. Credit: Chris Wilson

To stun or kill their prey, many marine snails use some of the strongest venoms on Earth. The teeth in the radula of the geography cone, or Conus geographus, are modified to carry a venomous sting that disrupts insulin in its victims. Like a revolver loaded with up to twenty hypodermic needles (instead of six bullets), the cone snail harpoons its prey, sometimes with several stings in a matter of seconds.

“The venom gives you diabetes, basically,” Kidder said. “It makes you loopy. And if they’re able to hurt something our size, a fish, it’s usual prey, isn’t going to be an issue for it.”

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Conus geographus. Credit: Patrick Randall

The harpoon of the C. geographus can penetrate human skin and sometimes gloves and wetsuits depending on its size. A single sting from a Conus snail can cause muscle paralysis, difficulty breathing, and death. No antivenin exists; victims must be hospitalized until the venom wears off. Don’t pick these suckers up unless you’ve got comprehensive health insurance!

Scientists, however, see the cone snail’s venom as an opportunity for medicines, and are working to synthesize compounds from its unique chemical cocktail as treatments for a variety of diseases.

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Carrier snail. Credit: James St. John

Conus isn’t the only gastropod with potential benefit to humanity. The carrier shell, in the family Xenophoridae, Greek for “bearing foreigner,” uses a type of “concrete” to attach foreign objects to itself, reinforcing its own shell as it grows. The snail’s building media include other shells, pebbles, small pieces of coral, and in some instances human refuse like bottle caps. Scientists have even discovered new species from the shells attached to Xenophora.

“This is an aquatic saltwater snail that makes a cement that ‘dries’ underwater,” Kidder said. “If we can figure out how it does that, the economic possibilities are wild!”

So next time you see a land snail leaving a trail of slime, or a shell on the beach that once belonged to a marine gastropod, remember that in its own world, this slimy, slow-moving creature is a rock star.

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