HMNS entomologist Erin Mills walks you through how to mount and display a butterfly in this 4-part video tutorial.
Part I: Supplies
Check back next week for Part II!
In 2015, The Cockrell Butterfly Center will be making a couple of new outreach programs available to classrooms all over the Houston area. One of which was given to kindergarten students at St. Francis Episcopal School in December, and it was a hit, Awesome Arachnids!
For almost 10 years, we have been fascinating kids with “Amazing Arthropods”, a program that introduces students to members of the major classes of arthropods, mostly insects. We always include a tarantula to represent arachnids and can get quite carried away with talking about them. Unfortunately, we are only afforded about 5 minutes per presentation to do this. This frustrated me, as arachnids are one of the most feared and misunderstood classes of arthropods, but they are also SO COOL! So, the idea of Awesome Arachnids was born!
In this presentation, Entomologists from the Cockrell Butterfly Center will introduce you to some of our most interesting eight-legged creatures and explain the features that make them different from their six-legged cousins and other relatives.
Have you ever wondered what a tarantula feels like? Have you ever seen a scorpion change color right before your eyes? Can you even name any other types of arachnids? Don’t worry, that’s what we’re here for!
Here is a sneak peek at some of the stars of our show…
Rosie and Peanut, 20 and 10 years old, respectively, are two of our special tarantula ambassadors! They will help ease you into the world of spiders – one of the most feared types of animals on the planet. As many as 55% of females and 18% of males in Western society are estimated to have arachnophobia – a fear of spiders and other arachnids. Although spiders are venomous, and venom CAN cause people harm, more often than not, a spider is harmless to us. No one helps illustrate that point better than Peanut and Rosie, with their furry appearance and docile nature. We will teach you all about spiders; which ones are ok, which ones to avoid, and how they help us way more than they could ever harm us.
Vinny is a bizarre looking creature, one that most people have never come across before! Vinegaroons, also known as whip scorpions, inhabit tropical and sub-tropical areas all over the world. They have no venom glands, so cannot bite or sting. They are very shy, spending most of their time underneath rotten logs or rocks. At night, they hunt for insects, worms, and slugs. They help us control cockroach and cricket populations. Why are they called vinegaroons? Well, you’ll have to meet Vinny to find out. Once you meet him, you’ll want to meet more bizarre looking creatures like him!
Scorpions are another arachnid that most people fear, and for good reason! That intimidating looking stinger can pack quite a punch! Fortunately, the venom in their sting is formulated to act on other invertebrates, so it is USUALLY not dangerous to us, but can be quite painful! Emperor scorpions, like Pinchy, have very mild venom, no more severe than a bee sting. They are also more likely to pinch with their large, strong claws than sting, hence the name! Scorpions are incredible animals and have many characteristics that set them apart from other arachnids. Want to know more? We’ll be happy to share with you!
Children will be allowed to gently pet arachnids which pose no threat to their safety, such as the tarantulas. Necessary precautions are taken by the presenters to ensure the safety of the children and the animals at all times.
So there you have it! Hopefully we’ve whet your appetite for more fun facts and stories about these fantastic creepy crawlies! If you’re interested in bringing Awesome Arachnids to your school – just email us at firstname.lastname@example.org, or give us a call at 713-639-4758!
Get ready to see huge, ferocious, carnivorous insects and other animals feast on their prey in front of your very own eyes!
Every Friday throughout the summer, the Cockrell Butterfly Center will be hosting the Friday Feeding Frenzy, where we will be feeding live animals for your viewing pleasure at 9:30 a.m., 10 a.m., 10:30 a.m., and 11:30 a.m.. The cost is included with admission to the Butterfly Center.
GREEN TREE PYTHON
Our green tree pythons, Boo and Hiss, will be ready to dine on mice! These snakes are native to Indonesia, Australia, and New Guinea. Pythons are non-venomous snakes that subdue their prey by constricting. Their food consists mostly of small mammals and the occasional reptile. They lay in wait, curled around a tree branch. When potential prey approaches, they strike from an “S” position, using their tail as an anchor to the branch. Once their prey is snagged, it’s lights out!
GIANT ASIAN MANTIS
Due to their amazing camouflage, praying mantises can resemble either living or dead parts of plants, flowers, tree bark, stones, or sticks. Not only does this help conceal them from predators, but it keeps potential prey oblivious to their presence.
An insect that wanders too close is quickly snagged by raptorial front legs (read: legs specialized for grabbing) and held still by several tough spines. The mantis uses chewing mandibles to eat its victim alive.
Mantises have excellent vision at close range and can see as far as 20 meters. Their eyes are large and located on the sides of their heads, allowing the insect to see all around them. They can keep their eyes on potential prey by inconspicuously moving their heads up to 180 degrees. Nothing can escape their field of vision.
Most mantises feed on smaller insects, but some giant species can take down small reptiles, amphibians, and even rodents.
Centipedes are predatory, long-bodied arthropods with many pairs of legs — 1 pair per body segment. Centipedes are venomous and can be dangerous, so they are not to be confused with the congenial millipede, which poses no threat to humans and has four legs per body segment.
This centipede, also known as the giant red-headed centipede, can run very quickly to pursue prey. Once caught, the prey is bitten repeatedly by two fangs, which inject venom to immobilize and kill. Then the meal is devoured!
Giant centipedes of this and other similar species are found in Mexico and the southwestern United States. The coloration, known as aposematic or warning coloration, serves as a message to other animals: “Touch me and you’ll get more than you bargained for!”
A bite from one of these can cause intense pain that lasts for hours or days and can cause a severe reaction in someone who is allergic. These hunters take down smaller arthropods, small reptiles and amphibians, small rodents, and have even been known to hunt tarantulas.
This is the largest species of wolf spider found in the United States. Most wolf spiders are large and can sometimes be confused with tarantulas.
The name “wolf spider” refers to their hunting behavior. They don’t build a web designed to ensnare prey, but actively seek out their prey. Sometimes they wait to ambush their prey and at other times they chase it for a short distance.
Wolf spiders inject venom into their prey to immobilize it. They then use digestive enzymes to liquify the insides and then slurp it up through a tube that leads to the stomach.
Wolf spiders have no interest in biting people, but will if provoked. The severity of their bite has been compared to that of a bee sting.
GOLIATH BIRDEATER TARANTULA
This is the big momma of all tarantulas and regarded as the largest spider in the world. They can reach a weight of 5.3 ounces (more than a Quarter Pounder) and have a leg span of 12 inches (about the size of a dinner plate!). The name “birdeater” is a misnomer as they do not eat birds, although they could.
They are native to marshy swamplands in South America, and like other large spiders, they feed on mostly insects. However, because of their size, they often go for small reptiles, amphibians, and rodents.
If threatened, these tarantulas can produce an eerie hissing noise by rubbing together setae on their legs. If that doesn’t creep you out enough to stay away, watch out for the urticating hairs that are kicked off of the abdomen into air. If these hairs come into contact with the skin, you get really itchy. And you don’t even want to know what happens if it gets in your eyes!
Birdie is our resident birdeater and she’s a thrill to watch as she shoves as many crickets into her mouth as possible.
GULF COAST TOAD
You see those toads everywhere around here — unfortunately, often they are smushed by cars in the street.
Well, these guys aren’t getting run over. They get a five-star aquarium and an all-you-can-eat buffet provide by the Butterfly Center! Toads are opportunistic predators and will eat any small animal they can fit into their mouths, so they should be fun to watch.
Last but not least, meet Tofu! Tofu is staying with us while his owner, a friend of the Butterfly Center, is in Australia. We promised to take good care of him and feed him well, for all of you to see.
African bullfrogs are huge and the males can reach 10 inches. Like other frogs and toads, they are voracious predators and will eat anything they can fit in their mouths, including small rodents and birds.
African bullfrogs can spontaneously change genders in a single-sex environment — how’s that for a neat trick? Remember how, in Jurassic Park, the dinosaurs were all female, so they weren’t supposed to be able to breed? And remember what happened after frog DNA was added to the dinosaur DNA? Just like African bullfrogs, the Jurassic Park dinosaurs were able to switch their genders and breed, because as they say, “Life will find a way.” Silly humans!
We’re all pretty enamored with Tofu around here, so we can’t wait for you to meet him.
Well, there you have it folks, the Friday Feeding Frenzy line-up! Not only will you get up close and personal with these live animals, but you will also learn some cool facts and be able to ask questions.
While you’re in the Butterfly Center, don’t forget to check out 25 more amazing insects and other arthropods on display, and more than 1,000 free-flying butterflies. See you Friday!
The summer at the Houston Museum of Natural Science is always an interesting time. The hallways, offices, and classrooms are filled with children, eco-teens, and other interesting folks volunteering their time or just looking for a summer job. It’s a wonderful time because everywhere you look there is a smiling face and someone willing to pitch in to help wherever needed.
Every year, we have a horticulture intern that is sponsored by the Houston Garden Club. We have gotten to know such bright, delightful college students this way and we really look forward to the company and extra help.
his year, we have Felicia English from Stephen F. Austin State University. She has been a great addition to our team here in the Cockrell Butterfly Center. We have also been lucky to have Deborah Wagner helping out on the Entomology side of things. She’s currently getting her Masters in Museum and Field Studies at the University of Colorado in Boulder.
Since we have these new people around, we like to entertain them with things like lunches out to our favorite eclectic spots and field trips. Field trips usually have an emphasis on horticulture and are to places like nurseries, botanical gardens, etc. This year, we decided to take an Entomology field trip first! This was a little out of the ordinary for us as a staff, but super exciting for me and our other staff Entomologist Lauren. So we headed out to Bear Creek Park one morning in hopes of seeing some great bugs!
I have to admit, I wasn’t super optimistic about what we would see, considering the extreme drought Southeast Texas has been experiencing. But it wasn’t long after we arrived that we spotted our first insect, a velvet ant!
|photo credit: Hunter-Desportes|
These are cool critters! They are very common in East Texas. They are only active during certain times in the morning and afternoon, so spotting them is always a treat! If you’ve never seen one, you’d probably be in for quite a surprise!
They are large, nearly an inch in size, fuzzy, red and black creatures that resemble huge ants. They have no wings and scurry around much like an ant, but they are actually a type of wasp. The females are wingless. They live in burrows and eat nectar. They hunt solitary ground-nesting bees to feed to their larvae. The males are quite a bit smaller, not as fuzzy, and look more like a typical wasp. They have wings and are rarely seen. We often have these on display in the Entomology Hall and probably will have them at the end of the summer. They’re very fun to watch and are awfully cute!
Not even 5 minutes had gone by until someone cried out, “I found some walking sticks!” “Wow, seriously?” I thought! Zac, our horticulturist had been digging in some rotten wood when he came across a small colony of Western two-striped walking sticks.
These are no ordinary walking sticks. Aside from an elongated body, they don’t look much like sticks! They have two longitudinal stripes running down their backside, and they are pretty pudgy for a walking stick. The females can be about 3 to 4 inches in length and the males are much smaller. The males are often seen riding on the female’s back and are usually mistaken for a baby because of the size difference! Pairs usually stay connected after mating. The male has a much shorter lifespan than the female, so as a result the female is often seen dragging the males lifeless body after her wherever she goes!
These walking sticks are known by many other names, including musk mares because of the defensive fluid they secrete from the sides of their thorax. This milky substance has a foul odor and can irritate mucus membranes. They can aim a stream for up to 40 centimeters and will aim for the eyes. Needless to say, a shot in the eye will result in pain, temporary blindness, and other unpleasant consequences, but luckily the effects are not permanent! We came away with 3 males and 4 females, more than enough to display and start a colony with. Despite the nasty defense, they are interesting critters and the fluid is easy to avoid!
Back on the path, we headed further in to the forest, not seeing much of anything and feeling bad about how parched everything looked. We were happy with what we had encountered so far, however.
The surprises kept coming!
We had not expected to see any butterflies whatsoever until a very large, dark colored butterfly came soaring over our heads, coming to light on a branch up ahead. As we got closer we saw a female tiger swallowtail hungrily sipping nectar from a buttonbush, which as it turns out, is a great nectar source if you’re interested in butterfly gardening!
What we saw was the dark form of the female Eastern tiger swallowtail. Males have yellow wings with 4 black tiger stripes, while the female can have yellow wings, like the male, or black wings, like the one we saw. Any sighting of this breathtaking butterfly is awesome!
We also came accross an injured hackberry tree with sap oozing from the wounds. The sap was attracting tawny emperors from all over the forest to take advantage. The butterflies did not scare away easily and allowed us to take many pictures of the spectacle. We were very pleased!
As we went farther, there was one thing on my mind, lubber grasshoppers! I knew from early trips to this park with my friend Laurie that we would reach a creek with a bridge over it. On the other side of that bridge we could possibly find tons of lubber grasshoppers to bring back with us!
A few years ago, in the same area, there were so many of them that we had to try hard not to step on them! But, that was a very wet summer and I did not have high hopes. As we went along, everyone had their eyes peeled! We got to the bridge and right before we crossed it Zac, our horticulturist, had something fly right into his head. It was not what we were looking for, but it was quite a find!
A red-legged buprestid beetle. Buprestids are known as metallic wood-boring beetles and are on of those families that has many absolutely breathtaking species of beetles. Metallic, colorful, jewels of nature. This was a spectacular species that is actually no too common in our area, bonus!
Lubber Grasshoppers: Found!
So, over the bridge we headed, not before seeing a couple of alligator gars in the creek! Not 5 minutes after we crossed the bridge did someone pipe up, “found a lubber,” “oh here’s another,” “I found one too!”
Oh my gosh, they were everywhere! We caught as many as we could until they all started to retreat into a huge poison ivy patch. They were actually eating the poison ivy! We already know that lubber grasshoppers have bright coloration to warn potential redators that they are poisonous. We also know that they get their poison from eating nasty plants in the wild (if you don’t know, read my post about lubber grasshoppers!), so seeing them eat that nasty poison ivy was not a surprise!
We came back with about a dozen which will live out the rest of their lives on display and teaching kids about bugs. They are very well cared for, in fact, totally spoiled! It was a great feeling to know that even though the weather has been harsh, we still have a hot spot for lubbers and other amazing native Texan insects!
We had a great adventure and a lot of fun together as a staff. We saw not only the insects we were hoping for, but also other wildlife such as birds, fish, other invertebrates, and I even saw a deer! No one else saw it and many of them thought I was crazy, but I definitely saw one!
It was fun for me to be able to teach our horticulture staff a little bit about the fine art of bug huntin! Later, we visited Moody Gardens in Galveston. The rainforest pyramid has recently been renovated and it’s really neat! They have a slew of different wildlife in there including, white faced saki monkeys, cotton top tamarins, macaws, sloths, and many other things. Not to mention the plants in their conservatory are absolutely gorgeous! I would definitely recommend a visit there.
Next for me is my annual conference in the Sonoran Desert of Southern Arizona. This is another favorite part of the summer for me. There’s nothing like bug nerds from around the country meeting in a lush insect habitat for a week. I can’t wait to tell you folks all about it!
Until next time, happy bug watching!