You’ve probably noticed the magnifying effect of a glass of water or any other clear beverage (the black text to the right of the glass is the same size as the black text behind the glass):
And you probably have some idea that the magnification has to do with the curved shape of the glass and the water it contains: The water in the glass bends light so it appears to us to be coming from an object that is bigger or closer than it really is.
To explore this more, try making differently sized water drops on top of a sheet of waxed paper (the waxed paper helps the water ‘bead up,’ which improves the effect):
You’re aiming for a large drop about 2 centimeters or 1 inch across, and medium and small drops that are, well, smaller. If you don’t have an eyedropper to help you, you can either pour extremely carefully or dip a pencil or spoon in water and let the water drip off of it.
Look at a page with words through the drops (don’t use your first editions of The Old Man and the Sea or Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, because the water will eventually seep through the waxed paper and make you very, very sad). Do you see any differences between the larger and smaller drops?
This looks much clearer if you try it yourself, so go do it!
You may be thinking “My large drops (possibly puddles) don’t seem to change anything; why do the small drops work so much better?” To explain this, try looking at your drops from the side (your eyes should be level with the surface of your table:
The shapes are different: The largest drop looks almost flat across the top, while the smallest drop makes a very tidy little dome shape. Another way to say this is that the smallest drop’s surface is more sharply curved, or is more convex than the larger drops (convex surfaces bulge out, concave surfaces “cave in.” And it turns out that the less convex the surface of the drop, the less it magnifies. If you want a more in depth explanation with diagrams, check out this site.