Editor’s note: This blog post is a summation of “Ecology, Behavior, and Reproduction of an Introduced Population of Red-vented Bulbuls (Pycnontus cafer) in Houston, Texas,” written by HMNS Curator of Vertebrate Zoology Daniel M. Brooks and published in The Wilson Journal of Ornithology.
Invasive species are (unfortunately) nothing new to Texas. Defined as an “introduced species that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, and/or ecologically,” invasive species (aka invasive exotics or exotics) can have wide-ranging negative impacts on regions.
Species such as giant salvinia, feral hogs, zebra mussels and nutria constitute invasive species currently wreaking havoc on Texas wildlife, having decimated food sources and changing ecological dynamics, and even threatening other species’ survival in their environmental niches. It’s for this reason that many scientists have begun to study introduced species and their behaviors before they decimate their new habitats.
In light of this, Brooks initiated the Texas Invasive Bird Project in June 2008, a citizen-science study targeting six avian species invading the state. One of these is the red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer). This species was previously unstudied in Houston.
The red-vented bulbul is native to Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka, but has become a well-established invasive species in parts of the Middle East, various tropical Pacific islands … and Houston. In its native and introduced regions, it can be found in a variety of habitats, including urban gardens. In the Houston study, we aimed to determine the ecology, behavior and reproduction of the bulbul through a questionnaire made available at birdwatching clubs, annual birdwatching festivals and circulated on internet list serves. Most of the respondents were either birdwatchers familiar with bulbuls or horticulturalists who maintain diverse gardens.
The results determined that the most frequent activities for the birds included foraging, perching or resting and calling. Ninety-six percent of the reports described residential suburbs as the primary habitat of the birds, with the highest concentrations being found in the Heights neighborhood. In these areas, they were observed perching on 35 species of plants, and feeding on 20. Forty-three percent of the plants they perched on are native to Texas, while only five of the 20 plants they fed on are native to Texas. The most common plants used for perching were also exotic plants (bamboo, crepe myrtle, fig and tallow), which are all found in the native range of the bulbul.
They are generally non-migratory birds. But the largest flocks appear at regular intervals between August and September, and then again from December through January, traveling in flocks of 12 to 22 birds. This matches their patterns in other regions, while their numbers are much smaller in Houston (with gatherings of 20 to 100 birds within their native range).
Ultimately, it seems that bulbuls are not currently a threat to Houston, but they should continue to be closely monitored. While they pose no current negative economic threat as they do in Pacific islands (such as Oahu, where they’ve decimated tropical plant crops), it seems that their largest potential threat in Houston remains through seed dispersal. In this area, they have great potential to disperse noxious weedy seeds, as they have done in Fiji with spiked pepper, guava, and prickly night-shade.
In the meantime, the birds seem to be enjoying their niche in previously untapped resources of other exotic plants brought to Houston and used in gardens, which other birds have not used with great regularity to eat or perch in. However, as the population continues to increase and spread through the region, we will have to monitor any changes that may occur which could negatively impact native species.