Seeing Stars with James Wooten: Canopus rises in Texas this February

This star map shows the Houston sky at 9 pm CST on February 1, 8 pm CST on February 14, and 7 pm on February 28. To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom. The Great Square of Pegasus sets in the western sky. Taurus, the Bull, is almost overhead. Dazzling Orion, the Hunter is high in the south, with his two dogs behind him. Sirius, the Big Dog Star, is the brightest star we ever see at night. Jupiter, in Gemini, approaches the zenith on February evenings. Look for Canopus, second brightest star ever seen at night, low in the south.

This star map shows the Houston sky at 9 p.m. CST on Feb. 1, 8 p.m. CST on Feb. 14, and 7 p.m. on Feb. 28. To use the map, put the direction you are facing at the bottom. The Great Square of Pegasus sets in the western sky. Taurus, the Bull, is almost overhead. Dazzling Orion, the Hunter is high in the south, with his two dogs behind him. Sirius, the Big Dog Star, is the brightest star we ever see at night. Jupiter, in Gemini, approaches the zenith on February evenings. Look for Canopus, the second brightest star ever seen at night, low in the south.

This month, Venus has entered the morning sky. Look southeast at dawn for the brightest point of light there; only the Sun and Moon outshine Venus. Venus remains a morning star for almost all of 2014.

Jupiter, up literally all night long last month, remains well placed for evening observing all winter and spring. Look for it in the east at dusk and almost overhead later in the evening.

Mars remains in the morning sky. It continues to brighten a bit in the south at dawn.

Saturn remains in the pre-dawn sky. Face south-southeast right before sunup to see it.

In February, the Big Dipper only partly risen at dusk. Its two pointer stars — the stars farthest from the handle which point at the North Star —may be high enough to see over trees and buildings.

Watch the Great Square of Pegasus set in the west at dusk. Taurus the Bull is high in the south. Look for the Pleiades star cluster above reddish Aldebaran. Dazzling Orion the Hunter takes center stage on winter evenings. Surrounding Orion are the brilliant stars of winter. Orion’s belt points down to Sirius, the Dog Star, which outshines all other stars we ever see at night. The Little Dog Star, Procyon, rises with Sirius and is level with Orion’s shoulder as they swing towards the south. To the upper left of Orion’s shoulder is Gemini, the Twins, which contains Jupiter this winter.

Under Sirius and low to the southern horizon this month is a star that most Americans never get to see: Canopus. Representing the bottom (keel) of the legendary ship Argo, Canopus is the second brightest star ever visible at night (second to Sirius). Thus, it is clearly noticeable along the southern horizon on February and March evenings. However, you must be south of 37 degrees north for Canopus to rise. (This is the line that divides Utah, Colorado, and Kansas from Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma.)

The sky we see depends on our latitude as well as on the time of night and time of year. From any given location in our hemisphere, there is an area of the sky around the North Star in which stars never set (circumpolar stars), and an equivalent area around the South Celestial Pole in which stars never rise. The closer you are to the pole, the larger these areas are. Observers in Canada, for example, have many circumpolar stars, but there is also a large area of stars that they never see. The closer you get to the equator, the fewer circumpolar stars there are, but there are also fewer stars that never rise for you. At the equator, no stars are either circumpolar or never visible; all of them rise and set as Earth turns.

That’s why, down here in south Texas, the Big Dipper sets, although it’s always up for most Americans. On the other hand, Canopus, too far south to rise for most Americans, rises here.

Moon Phases in February 2014:

1st Quarter: Feb. 6, 1:21 pm
Full: Feb. 14, 5:54 pm
Last Quarter: Feb. 22, 11:16 am
New: Mar. 1, 2:02 am

The Moon takes 27.34 days to orbit Earth; one cycle of Moon phases lasts 29.54 days. At 28 days long, February is the only month shorter than a lunar phase cycle, and thus the only month that can have only three of the four main phases. That’s the case this year, as a New Moon occurred at the end of January and the next comes early on March 1.

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.

Clear skies to you!

Seeing Stars with James Wooten: February 2013

Mercury briefly enters the evening sky this month. Greatest elongation (the greatest apparent distance from Sun) is February 16, so that’s when you’ll see it the longest.  However, you can begin looking in a few days. Because Mercury sets soon after the Sun, you’ll need a perfectly clear horizon right over the point of sunset at dusk.  On February 8, Mercury passes less than one degree from Mars, which is on its way out of the evening sky.

Jupiter was up all night long last month and is now almost overhead at dusk. Opposition, when Earth passed directly between Jupiter and the Sun, was January 3. Face high in the south at dusk and look for the brightest thing there (unless the Moon is also there), as Jupiter outshines all stars we ever see at night.

Sky Map: February 2013

Venus now rises while dawn brightens the sky; its morning apparition is ending. Soon Venus willl pass around the far side of the Sun from our perspective, and then reappear in the evening by summer.

Saturn remains in the morning sky this month. Look for it in the south-southwest at dawn.

Brilliant winter stars dominate the southern skies of February. Dazzling Orion is almost due south at dusk. His three-starred belt is halfway between reddish Betelgeuse and bluish Rigel. Orion’s belt points up to Aldebaran in Taurus the Bull. This winter the Bull also contains Jupiter.

Rising with Orion, and far to his left, are the twin stars Castor and Pollux, marking the heads of Gemini, the Twins. You can find Sirius, the brightest star we ever see at night, by drawing a line from Orion’s belt towards the horizon. To Orion’s left, about level with Betelgeuse, is Procyon, the Little Dog Star.

From Sirius, look a little bit to the right and then straight down to the horizon.  If your southern horizon is clear of clouds and tall earthly obstacles, you’ll see Canopus, the second-brightest star ever visible at night. This star is so far south that most Americans never see it, and many star maps made in the USA omit it. (You must be south of 37 degrees north—the latitude of the USA’s Four Corners—for Canopus to rise).

As you view Canopus, keep in mind that the sky we see depends on our latitude as well as on time of year and time of night.

Moon Phases in February 2013:
Last Quarter                  February 3, 7:57 am
New                               February 10, 1:22 am
1st Quarter                    February 17, 2:30 pm
Full                                February 25, 2:28 pm

The New Moon of February 10 is the second New Moon after the winter solstice.  Accordingly, it marks Chinese New Year. On this date the Year of the Dragon ends and the Year of the Snake begins.

On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.

To enjoy the stars in any weather from the comfort of the HMNS Planetarium, click here for a full schedule.

Would you like email updates on current events in the sky, at the planetarium, and at the George Observatory?  If so, send an email to astroinfo@hmns.org.

Go Stargazing! May Edition

Saturn is the only planet in May 2011 evening skies.  Face south southeast at dusk, and you’ll see Saturn near a star of similar brightness— Spica in Virgo.  Saturn is significantly higher in the sky than Spica and a bit to its right as you face south.  Last month, Earth passed between the Sun and Saturn.  That alignment, called opposition, put Saturn in the sky all night long.  The ringed planet is now well placed for evening viewing, and remains in the evening sky until late September 2011.

mars-06-crop
Mars
Creative Commons License photo credit: chipdatajeffb

The other four naked eye planets are involved in a very close gathering low in the east at dawn.  You will need a clear view all the way to the east northeastern horizon at daybreak to observe this planet massing.  However, the planets do outshine all stars in this general area. If you’re able to observe any points of light just above the horizon as dawn begins, you’re probably seeing the planets.  As of now, Venus and Mercury rise first, with Mercury about a degree under the brighter Venus.  Mars and Jupiter are a bit to their lower left, with Mars a little to the left of Jupiter.  Mars was less that half a degree above Jupiter on May 1, and is now slowly pulling away from it.  Venus and Mercury are moving faster, so they are closing the gap on Mars and Jupiter.

On the morning of May 11, Venus and Mercury will be aligned with Jupiter, with Venus less than one degree from Jupiter.  This is also when the entire grouping is the most compact, with all four planets within six degrees of one another.  By May 21, Mercury and Venus will have caught up with Mars, with Venus just over a degree from the red planet.  After this, Mercury and Venus pull ahead of Mars and thus go deeper into the sun’s glare.  Mars and Jupiter, left behind, remain in the morning sky all summer.

Star Gazing
Creative Commons License photo credit: jurvetson

A swath of brilliant winter stars sets in the west at dusk this month.  Orion, the Hunter, is still visible in the west as May begins.  His two dogs, represented by Sirius and Procyon, are to his left.  To Orion’s right is Taurus, the Bull, with the star Aldebaran as its eye. Gemini, the Twins, are above Orion.  The Big Dipper is above the North Star, with its handle pointing to the right.  From that handle, you can ‘arc to Arcturus’ and then ‘speed on to Spica;’ those stars are in the east and southeast at dusk.  Leo, the Lion, passes almost overhead in late evening.

As Orion and Taurus set, look for Antares, brightest star of Scorpius, the Scorpion, to rise in the southeast.  At the same time, Vega, brightest star of the Summer Triangle, appears low in the northeast.  These stars remind us that summer is on the way.

Moon Phases in May 2011:

New Moon                              May 3, 1:50 a.m.

1st Quarter                             May 10, 3:32 p.m.

Full Moon                               May 17, 6:07 a.m.

Last Quarter                          May 24, 1:51 p.m.

Go Stargazing: April Edition

Saturn dominates April 2011 skies because yesterday, on April 3, the Earth passed between the sun and Saturn.  This alignment, called opposition, puts Saturn in the sky all night long; it rises in the east at dusk and sets in the west at dawn.

Venus’ apparition as a dazzling morning star is coming to an end.  It is getting lower and lower in the sky each morning as the angle between the solar system plane and the horizon gets shallower.  Face southeast at dawn, and you can’t miss it of you have a clear horizon.

Jupiter is directly behind the sun from our perspective on April 6 and therefore invisible all month.

Mars also remains lost in the sun’s glare all month.

A swath of brilliant winter stars continues to dominate evening skies.  These stars are now high in the west at dusk and set in late evening.  Orion, the Hunter, is in the southwest as April begins.  His two dogs, represented by Sirius and Procyon, are to his left.  Beside Orion in the west is Taurus, the Bull with Aldebaran as its eye. Gemini, the Twins, are above Orion.  The Big Dipper is to the upper right of the North Star, with its handle pointing down and to the right.  From that handle, you can ‘arc to Arcturus’ and then ‘speed on to Spica’; those stars are low in the east at dusk.  Leo, the Lion, passes almost overhead in late evening.

Below Sirius, just above the southern horizon in late twilight, is a star second only to Sirius in brightness.  This is Canopus, which marks the keel (bottom) of the legendary ship Argo Navis.  Canopus is so far south, in fact, that most Americans never see it.  From the Gulf Coast, however, Canopus does rise.  In early April, you can still see it in the evening just after dusk.

Lune
Creative Commons License photo credit: ComputerHotline

Moon Phases in April 2011:

New Moon                      April 3, 9:32 a.m.

1st Quarter                     April 11, 7:05 a.m.

Full Moon                       April 17, 9:43 p.m.

Last Quarter                  April 24, 9:46 p.m.

Sunday, April 24, is the first Sunday after the first Full Moon of spring.  Therefore, this is Easter Sunday.  This happens to be the second latest possible date for Easter.  Easter will fall on April 25, the absolute latest date, in 2038.