Buzz or flutter: Who matters when it comes to pollination? (Hint: It’s everybody.)

In economic terms, bees far outstrip butterflies and moths as pollinators. However, there are some plants that are exclusively pollinated by butterflies — especially some wildflowers and garden ornamentals — and several night-blooming species are specifically pollinated by hawkmoths.

Butterflies and moths are members of the insect order “Lepidoptera” — the scaly-winged insects. In addition to the scales covering adults’ wings, Lepidoptera have unique mouth parts as adults: a long, thin, double-barreled, flexible “straw” that is kept coiled up when not in use and extends to reach deep into flowers to extract nectar. This long proboscis means the plants that butterflies and moths typically pollinate have long, thin floral tubes, making the nectar inaccessible to other pollinators with shorter tongues, such as bees or flies.

courtesy of Wikimedia commons

The technical term for butterfly pollination is “psychophily” — psyche being Greek for butterfly.  Butterfly-pollinated flowers are usually brightly colored (butterflies have the widest-known range of color vision in the animal kingdom), especially in yellows, oranges, reds, pinks, and purples or combinations. Scent is apparently not important for butterflies.  However, the flower structure and position is important.  Butterfly-attracting flowers are often produced in showy terminal clusters of smallish blossoms, each with a floral tube that contains nectar and is easily accessible by the butterfly’s long proboscis.

Smaller flowers are usually pollinated by smaller butterflies, which have relatively shorter probosces; large butterflies such as swallowtails have very long probosces and a longer “reach.” Some familiar examples of “classic” butterfly-pollinated flowers are pentas, lantana (indeed many plants in the verbena family), thistles and coneflowers (and many other members of the sunflower or aster family), and milkweeds, among others.  Milkweeds are especially interesting as their pollen is not powdery but occurs in masses or pollinia, each of which bears a little hook that catches on a butterfly’s leg as it probes among the flower clusters.

A few butterflies (mostly the genus Heliconius in the longwing butterfly family) are known to collect pollen on their proboscis and absorb the amino acids from it.  In general, butterflies do not have the “carrying capacity” for pollen as bees do with their hairy bodies.  However, as they move from flower to flower, enough pollen accumulates on their legs or proboscis to get the job done!

Moth pollination is termed “phalaenophily” (phalaen- meaning moth). A number of moths, including tiger moths, noctuid or owlet moths, and more, visit flowers.  But the best-known pollinators among the moths are the hawkmoths, also known as sphinx moths — the adult form of hornworm caterpillars. These large, powerful fliers are basically the nocturnal equivalent of hummingbirds.  Hawkmoth-pollinated flowers are usually white or pale-colored, making them stand out from the surrounding vegetation at night.  They have long floral tubes to accommodate the very long proboscis of these moths, and many are highly fragrant in the evening, or may only open after dark.  Some examples are moonflower, Brunfelsia, Brugmansia and Datura, night-blooming jasmine, four o’clocks, and evening primrose.

Back to bees:  most of us think “honey bee” when we think of bees, but there are many other bee species, from the familiar bumblebee (not common in our area) to the giant carpenter bees, to tiny sweat bees and colorful leaf cutter bees. These different bee species also have favorite flowers to visit for nectar or pollen (most bees only collect pollen).  For the technophiles, pollination by bees is called “melittophily.”

The wonderful variety of flowers — their shapes, sizes, colors, scents and time of day they bloom, even their placement on a plant — have all evolved to attract a pollinator, often a specific one.  Since plants are rooted in the ground, they depend on things that move, mostly flying things — whether butterfly, moth, bee, fly, hummingbird, bat, or even wind — to transfer their male gametes (in pollen) from flower to flower so that the plants can make more of themselves through forming fruits and seeds.

Next time you are out in your garden, in a field of wildflowers, in a gardening shop, or any place with an abundance of flowers, stop to look more closely at the blooms and think about what pollinator that plant might depend on for its survival.

Plant Sale: This Saturday

Today’s post was written by Soni, horticulturalist for our Butterfly Center. She and the other employees are hard at word preparing for our upcoming Plant Sale on October 2.

I’m sure not very many of you are thinking of rolling up your sleeves and heading into the blazing heat of summer to do a little gardening. What you should do is start thinking ahead to fall, planning your garden for when the weather cools off and you can once again step outside of the air conditioning without having a heat stroke. If your garden needs a perk up after this summer, you should head over to the Cockrell Butterfly Center’s Fall Plant Sale which will be this Saturday, October 2, from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m., on the 7th level of the parking garage at the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

Bouquet of Coneflowers
Coneflowers
Creative Commons License photo credit: Randy Son Of Robert

Twice a year we have a sale where we carefully select just the right plants for you to put in your garden to attract butterflies and their offspring. How do you go about attracting butterflies and their offspring? Well, first of all, you need lots and lots of nectar plants, the more variety the better. The best nectar plants are those with small tubular flowers arranged in clusters, sometimes with brightly colored petals that serve as a target to alert the butterflies that, “Hey! There’s food over here!” Butterflies survive on a liquid diet because of their specialized mouthparts, collectively called a proboscis. It looks like a coiled straw which they unravel to poke down inside flowers and consume the sugary liquid. Some examples of excellent nectar plants are Coneflower (Echinacea sp.), Black and Brown Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia sp.), Native Gayflower (Liatris sp.), Lantana, Verbena, Porterweed (Stachytarpheta sp.), Salvia, Heliotrope, Mexican Sunflower (Tithonia) and many, many more.

Did you think I forgot to mention their offspring? Of course not, that is my favorite part of butterfly gardening! Let’s back up for a minute so you can see the big picture. A butterfly’s life is comprised of four stages. In each stage the creature looks totally different. The whole lifecycle is called complete metamorphosis (meta means change, and morph means form). The first stage is the egg, which was laid by its thoughtful mother on a very important plant called a host plant. (Did you know butterflies are really good botanists? The story gets even weirder. They can tell plants apart by tasting them with their feet!) When the egg hatches, a caterpillar (otherwise known as a larva) crawls out and immediately eats the egg shell. Then, the caterpillar looks around and wonders, “What else is there to eat around here?” Well, little friend, you are sitting right on top of it. The host plant is the food, the life support, for the caterpillar. Without host plants we would not have butterflies!

Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus) monarch-butterfly_2
Monarch Butterfly
Creative Commons License photo credit: mikebaird

Each type of butterfly corresponds to a different type of host plant. For example, the well known Monarch butterfly only lays its eggs on the Milkweed plant (Asclepias sp.). The Monarch caterpillars will not eat Parsley or Dill, but you know who will? The Black Swallowtail, that’s who. Other host plants that attract our native butterflies are: citrus species, rue (Ruta graveolens), and wafer ash (Ptelea trifoliate) for the Giant Swallowtail; Dutchman’s pipevine (Aristolochia fimbriata and A. elegans) for Pipevine and Polydamas Swallowtails; spicebush (Lindera benzoin) and sassafras (Sassafras albidum) for the Spicebush Swallowtail; sennas (Cassia sp.) and partridge pea (Chamaecrista fasciculate) for Sulphurs; and passionvines (Passiflora sp.) for the Gulf Fritillary.

The third stage of metamorphosis is the chrysalis (or pupa), which is what the adult butterfly (the fourth and final stage) emerges out of.

When you combine nectar and host plants in your landscape you will not only increase your chances of seeing butterflies, but you can also have the experience of witnessing the amazing process of metamorphosis first hand. If you don’t want to see plants that are chewed up, you can omit the host plants, or place them behind other plants, however, watching a butterfly lay eggs and watching caterpillars grow is pretty cool.

We will have the majority of the plants mentioned above at the plant sale, plus many more (a “complete” list is on the website). The selections we have made are for growing in Houston and the surrounding areas, a lot being native plants. You can also learn about gardening for butterflies at the sale from our knowledgeable staff and volunteers. Hope to see you there!

Here are some tips for attending the plant sale:
1. Get there early. Don’t wait and expect to have a lot to choose from an hour before we close.
2. We will have wagons for customers to cart their plants to their cars, but if you have your own, bring it.
3. We take cash, check and credit cards.
4. The lines are long, but look at it as a time to make new friends or learn something new.   

Butterfly Gardener Alert!

Today’s post was written by Soni, horticulturalist for our Butterfly Center. She and the other employees are hard at word preparing for our upcoming Plant Sale on April 10.

She Was Completely Transparent With Me
Creative Commons License photo credit: Randy Son Of Robert

Got butterflies? Probably not, if your garden suffered freeze damage over the past few months. After this unusually long and cold winter, many of us have lost plants, especially species that are more tropical and not adapted to freezing temperatures.

But now that winter is finally behind us, it’s time to replant! Butterfly gardeners won’t want to miss the Cockrell Butterfly Center’s Spring Plant Sale. It’s happening soon:  Saturday, April 10, 2010 from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m., on the 7th level of the parking garage at the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

Some of you may be seasoned butterfly gardeners, but others may be asking, “How DO you ‘garden’ for butterflies?” It’s quite simple.   For a successful butterfly garden you need two types of plant:  nectar and host plants.

Mix of flowers

Coneflowers and Rudbeckias
Creative Commons License photo credit: Per Ola Wiberg ~ Powi

Thanks to their specialized mouthparts – a long, thin, straw-like proboscis – adult butterflies can only consume liquid food.  The blooms of nectar plants produce a sugary liquid (nectar) that butterflies sip to give them the energy to fly, mate, and produce eggs.  Most nectar plants have colorful flowers borne in showy clusters.  Some examples of good nectar plants for our area are Porter Weed, Echinacea (Purple Cone Flower), Zinnias, Rudbeckia (Brown and Black-eyed Susans), Monarda (Bee Balm), Lantana, Salvias, Eupatorium (Mistflower), Cuphea, Buddleia (Butterfly Bush), and Tithonia (Mexican Sunflower), among many others.

Green Papilio polyxenes caterpillar

Eastern Black
Swallowtail Caterpillar
Creative Commons License photo credit: cyanocorax

In contrast to the adults, baby butterflies, aka caterpillars, have chewing mouthparts and eat leaves.  Many butterflies are quite choosy in their caterpillar stage, and can only survive and grow on specific plants, which we call host plants.  For example, Monarch caterpillars will only eat Asclepias (Milkweed); they cannot and will not eat anything else.  Female butterflies seek out the appropriate host plants for their babies when they are laying eggs.  Some host plants that can be included in your butterfly garden are Asclepias (for Monarchs and Queen Butterflies); Passionvines (for Gulf Fritillaries and if you’re lucky, Zebra Longwings); Citrus and Rue (for Giant Swallowtails); Dill, Parsley, and Fennel (for Black Swallowtails); Aristolochia aka Pipevine (for Pipevine and Polydamas Swallowtails); and Cassia aka Senna (for Sulphur Butterflies).  If you see caterpillars eating these plants, rejoice!  You will soon have lots of beautiful butterflies coming to your nectar plants.

Some of you may think you don’t want caterpillars eating away in your garden.  If so, you can avoid host plants and include only nectar plants.  However, you’ll get more butterflies if you plant both.  We predict that soon you’ll be treasuring every caterpillar!

Many of the nectar and host plants listed above will be available at our sale.  We strive to provide butterfly-attracting plants that are either native or naturalized in Texas, and that perform well in the Houston area.  Our sale is also a good place to learn more about butterfly gardening.  Several experts will be on hand to answer questions and to help you choose plants.


Plant Sale! At the Cockrell Butterfly Center from HMNS on Vimeo.

So save the date:  Saturday, April 10, from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.  Come early, the plants go fast!

Moths: Butterflies’ Mysterious Cousins

right-wing-waving white ermine
Creative Commons License photo credit: e³°°°

Butterflies are probably the most popular insects ever! But what about moths? What’s their story? Why are they less popular than butterflies, considering the fact that there are nearly 250,000 species of them compared to only about 20,000 species of butterflies? This is one fact among a plethora of others that I’m sure you all would like to know about moths!

The question we get asked the most here at the CBC is what is the difference between butterflies and moths? It can be a little tricky to explain. They are two completely different types of insects. However, the characteristics that define them are not always so clear-cut.  For example, butterflies are diurnal, meaning that they fly during the day. Most moths are nocturnal, but some can be crepuscular (meaning they fly at dawn and dusk) and some are even diurnal. Butterflies and moths can both have thin antennae, but only moths have feathery antennae. Butterflies have thinner bodies with less hair while moths are chunky and hairy! Although, I have seen some stalky butterflies, and hairy ones too.  Butterflies tend to be bright and colorful, whereas moths are normally cryptic and drab. But what is thought to be the most beautiful lepidopteran in the world is actually, a moth. So sometimes, you need to take a second or third look to determine which one it is.

As different as they are, they are similar in many fundamental ways. They both have scales covering their wings, they feed on flower nectar with a proboscis, and they have complete metamorphosis that includes a larva, pupa, and adult stage. These life stages are given specific names. The larva of both are known as caterpillars and the pupa is called a chrysalis. Some moths build a silk covering around their chrysalis for protection. This is known as a cocoon, and despite what some people think, butterflies do not make cocoons.

Moths do get some recognition, unfortunately, it’s not all good. Several moths are serious pests in gardens, in forests, on farms, and even on clothes and in stored grains! If you have tomatoes, you may be familiar with the tomato hornworm.

Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca sexta) on Tomato
Tomato Hornworm
Creative Commons License photo credit: NatureFreak07

This is a huge and beautiful caterpillar but it has a very big appetite that most people don’t appreciate! It is a member of the Sphingidae, or sphinx moth family. These moths are often large and impressive, making them one of the most popular families. The caterpillars can be pesky, but can be deterred by planting marigolds around your tomato plants. The Gypsy Moth is another famous caterpillar that has caused a lot of problems. They originated in Europe and Asia but were introduced to the United States in the 1800s. Since their arrival, they have defoliated millions of acres of forest. Although they are better controlled now, they continue to be a major pest of hardwood trees. We all remember the smell of moth balls in our grandma’s closet. We can thank the common clothes moth for that wonderful smell! The caterpillars of these tiny moths are big fans of natural, proteinaceous fibers such as silk and wool. Luckily, they will not eat artificial fibers, so a lot of our clothes are safe now.

So, I know you’re thinking: “why should we like moths?” Look at all the trouble they cause! Well, like all other insects, the pests are a tiny minority and the rest make up for it in so many different ways! So, a couple of them eat silk, but where do you think we get that silk to begin with?? The silkworm (bombyx mori) is the world’s only domesticated insect. It is farmed for its silk and these little guys produce a ton of silk worth millions of dollars every year. They are not the only ones. There are several types of moths in the family Saturniidae (giant silk moths) that are used for their silk as well.

Hummingbird Moth
Creative Commons License photo credit: mk*

What about pollination? Butterflies do well during the day, but there are so many night blooming flowers. Moths have those covered! Hawkmoths (a.k.a sphinx moths or hornworms) are lovely evening pollinators. They are excellent fliers and some, like the hummingbird moth, are able to hover next to flowers to get nectar. They are often mistaken for hummingbirds. They are awesome to watch! You can plant a moon garden in conjunction with your butterfly garden to attract moths like these. They are attracted to flowers with white blooms that open or are most fragrant in the evening.

One last thing to mention is the beauty of moths. Everyone raves about butterflies, but some moths rival and depending on who you ask, surpass the beauty of butterflies. There are several breathtaking species of sphinx moths such as the Oleander Hawk Moth. All sphinx moths are known for their distinctive wing shape, very thick bodies and amazing flight capabilities. The larvae have a horn at the end of their abdomens during their earlier stages – giving rise to the name hornworm.

Luna Moth
Luna Moth
Creative Commons License photo credit: tlindenbaum

Saturniids, or giant silk moths, are perhaps the most well known moths. They are very large with butterfly-like wings that often have eyespots and brilliant colors. Perhaps the most well known is the Luna Moth. They are a beautiful light green color with graceful, flowing tails. Even more amazing is its relative the Madagascan moon moth or Comet Moth. Some other common saturniids that can be found around here include the Cecropia, Polyphemus and Io moths. Unfortunately, these beautiful giants only live for a couple of days as adult moths. They emerge as adults with no mouth parts, so they do not feed. They live off of food stored from their caterpillar stage until they find a mate and then they die. We do display a species of giant silk moth here at the Cockrell Butterfly Center, the Atlas Moth from Southeast Asia. This is actually the largest moth species in the world and it is amazing!

Finally, there is the Uraniidae, the family that includes the world’s most beautiful lepidopteran, according to some. This family contains several beautiful and colorful moths but the most famous is the Madagascan Sunset Moth. They were originally grouped together with swallowtail butterflies until 50 years after its discovery. I’m not sure if it’s the prettiest, but it is certainly a sight to see!

Whether they’re large and colorful or small and cryptic, I think moths are fascinating and beautiful insects that are just as important as any other beneficial insect. Next time you see one resting during the day, take a closer look. You may be surprised to see the intricate shapes and patterns that make up its “drab” camouflage. Until next time, happy bug watching!