Crystals are Cool: Making Rock Candy

Wish I Had Noted the Name
Creative Commons License photo credit: biggertree

There are so many different kinds of crystals all around us, but just what are they anyway?

Put simply, a crystal is a grouping of molecules or atoms that is organized in a specific way.  Every crystal has a unique shape and properties that make it recognizable.  In today’s experiment, we will be working with sugar crystals which are oblong and slanted on the ends.

There are a couple of things going on that contribute to the growth of sugar crystals in this experiment.  First, you will be creating a supersaturated solution by heating a saturated sugar solution and allowing it to cool.

Supersaturated solutions are solutions that are so full (of sugar in this case), that they are unstable.  The solution you will create will contain more sugar (the solute) than it can hold in a liquid form.  Therefore, the sugar must come out of solution – forming what is called a precipitate (also known as yummy rock candy).  The second mechanism that helps to form the sugar crystals is evaporation.  Slowly, the water evaporates from your solution.  As this happens the solution becomes even more saturated with sugar and the sugar will continue to come out of the solution and form sugar crystals.

Blue Sugar
Creative Commons License photo credit: karsten.planz

What you are left with is a delicious science treat!  Make sure to only eat a little at a time and keep the rest sealed in a baggie.  Also, don’t forget to brush your teeth; it is pure sugar after all!  Have fun in your kitchen lab and don’t forget to be safe!  Always include an adult when trying new experiments.

Grab a handy adult; you will need one to do this activity!

Materials:
Granulated sugar – 1 cup
Water – ½ cup
Saucepan
Food coloring
Two canning jars
Spoon

What to do:
1. Dump one cup of sugar and ½ cup of water into your saucepan.  Don’t stir it!
2. Find your adult and have them help you put it onto the stove over medium-high heat.  Wait for the mixture to come to a boil and let it boil for one minute without stirring.  If you want colored rock candy, you may add some food coloring while it boils.
3. Instruct your handy adult to pour this mixture into the two canning jars.
4. Find a place on your counter that you can let the two jars sit undisturbed for two weeks.
5. Observe them once a day.  Slowly, crystals begin to form.  When you see a crust form on top of the jars, use a spoon to carefully break the crust so the water can continue to evaporate.  Don’t do anything else to your jars other than this!
6. When you feel like you have enough crystals of the right size, have an adult help you remove them from the jar using a dull table knife.
7. Eat and enjoy!  Don’t forget to brush your teeth, it is sugar after all!

HMNS Summer Camps: Survivor

Summer is a time for exploring and growing, and there is no better place for learning and fun than at HMNS Xplorations Summer Camps! Campers can take week-long classes in archaeology, creepy crawlies, the science behind Harry Potter, dinosaurs, robots, crime scene investigation and much more.

dsc_0024
 A handcrafted object to harness the suns energy
and heat up food

Interested in nature? Do you love the outdoors? Then learn how to thrive in the wild. In our survivor camp, kids learn how to survive in harsh environments such as the desert or in the tropical forests. Campers discover how to find water and determine their location from the stars. They build their own water filters and make their own insect repellent.

The kids discuss which animals are dangerous and how to best avoid them. They make their own survival kits. They also learn how to say S.O.S in Morse code.

dsc_0138_fixed
 Campers practice tieing slipknots

What survival class would be complete without learning how to make a compass or the best knots  to tie? Ever wondered what was the best way to build a fire? Wonder no more. Sign up for Survivor class, just one of our many summer camps.

Just because school is out for the summer doesn’t mean your kids can’t keep learning! Check out our Xploration Summer Camps, a fun and educational adventure for your children. These week-long science classes are available for children ages 5 to 12 from June 1 through August 14. For more information, visit our web site at hmns.org.

The Science of Food: Emulsions on your Salad!

Emulsion Repulsion: Science on your Salad!

A simple way to explain an emulsion is as a suspension of two liquids within each other that normally would not mix (like oil and water).  Picture a cup with vinegar.  If you pour oil into the vinegar, the oil will float on top of the vinegar because it is less dense.  What happens if you briskly whisk them together?  Well, the liquids start to mix together and tiny droplets of each liquid become suspended within each other.  When they are uniformly dispersed in each other (evenly mixed) then you have an emulsion.

A simple mixture of oil and vinegar will ultimately separate back into vinegar and oil because at a molecular level, there is nothing holding the two kinds of liquids together. This temporary emulsion just happens because of the whisking. To get a permanent emulsion of these two liquids you need a third ingredient to hold the two immiscible (non-mixing) agents together and prevent them from separating.  This ingredient is called an emulsifying agent.  This agent is like a mutual friend who likes both the oil and the vinegar and holds them together.  It creates a weak chemical bond with each liquid and becomes like a bridge between them.  Eggs are a very common emulsifying agent as is mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.

Now that you understand emulsions, go into your kitchen and make your own!

egg-whisk-2
 Creative Commons License photo credit: LDCross

Materials:
Measuring cup
Measuring spoons
Vegetable oil
Vinegar
2 Mixing bowls
Whisk or hand egg beater
1 Egg

Procedure:

Part 1
1. First grab an adult to help you.  Also, we will be using a raw egg, so this experiment is not for eating, it’s just for experimenting!
2. In a mixing bowl, place ½ cup of vegetable oil.
3. Add one teaspoon of vinegar and use a spoon to gently mix them together.  Observe what happens.
4. Now, use the whisk or a hand eggbeater to mix the vinegar and oil.  What happens now? 
5. Watch the mixture for a few more minutes.  Observe what happens.  They should begin to separate.  Oil and vinegar do not stay well mixed.

Part 2
1. In a separate bowl, add one teaspoon of vinegar and an egg yolk (you will need to separate it from the egg white first).  Mix these two ingredients together well.
2. Now, add one cup of oil and two teaspoons of vinegar.  Mix the egg mixture together using the whisk or eggbeater.  What happens?  Observe.
3. Discuss your results. 

Emulsions aren’t just an experiment, though – they’re something you can see everyday. In honor of Big Bite Nite tomorrow night, Chef Sandor Edmonson from *17 at the Alden and I whip up a tasty vinaigrette. Click the video below to see the dish in progress as we create great example of an emulsion.

Want to learn how to make more food at home?
Learn the ingredients for ice cream.
Learn how to make your own butter.

Want to see more in the Science of Food video series?
Watch me make ice cream with Quattro’s Executive Pastry Chef Philippe Valladares.
See me make butterwith Adam Puskorius, Executive Chef at Polo’s Signature.