Mercury briefly enters the evening sky this month. Greatest elongation (the greatest apparent distance from Sun) is February 16, so that’s when you’ll see it the longest. However, you can begin looking in a few days. Because Mercury sets soon after the Sun, you’ll need a perfectly clear horizon right over the point of sunset at dusk. On February 8, Mercury passes less than one degree from Mars, which is on its way out of the evening sky.
Jupiter was up all night long last month and is now almost overhead at dusk. Opposition, when Earth passed directly between Jupiter and the Sun, was January 3. Face high in the south at dusk and look for the brightest thing there (unless the Moon is also there), as Jupiter outshines all stars we ever see at night.
Venus now rises while dawn brightens the sky; its morning apparition is ending. Soon Venus willl pass around the far side of the Sun from our perspective, and then reappear in the evening by summer.
Saturn remains in the morning sky this month. Look for it in the south-southwest at dawn.
Brilliant winter stars dominate the southern skies of February. Dazzling Orion is almost due south at dusk. His three-starred belt is halfway between reddish Betelgeuse and bluish Rigel. Orion’s belt points up to Aldebaran in Taurus the Bull. This winter the Bull also contains Jupiter.
Rising with Orion, and far to his left, are the twin stars Castor and Pollux, marking the heads of Gemini, the Twins. You can find Sirius, the brightest star we ever see at night, by drawing a line from Orion’s belt towards the horizon. To Orion’s left, about level with Betelgeuse, is Procyon, the Little Dog Star.
From Sirius, look a little bit to the right and then straight down to the horizon. If your southern horizon is clear of clouds and tall earthly obstacles, you’ll see Canopus, the second-brightest star ever visible at night. This star is so far south that most Americans never see it, and many star maps made in the USA omit it. (You must be south of 37 degrees north—the latitude of the USA’s Four Corners—for Canopus to rise).
As you view Canopus, keep in mind that the sky we see depends on our latitude as well as on time of year and time of night.
Moon Phases in February 2013:
Last Quarter February 3, 7:57 am
New February 10, 1:22 am
1st Quarter February 17, 2:30 pm
Full February 25, 2:28 pm
The New Moon of February 10 is the second New Moon after the winter solstice. Accordingly, it marks Chinese New Year. On this date the Year of the Dragon ends and the Year of the Snake begins.
On most clear Saturday nights at the George Observatory, you can hear me do live star tours on the observation deck with a green laser pointer. If you’re there, listen for my announcement.
To enjoy the stars in any weather from the comfort of the HMNS Planetarium, click here for a full schedule.
Would you like email updates on current events in the sky, at the planetarium, and at the George Observatory? If so, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.