Lecture: Update in Egyptology

On October 26, 2016 Dr. Mostafa Waziri and Salah El Masekh will present a lecture in our Wortham Gian Screen Theater. Titled Update in Egyptology the lecture will discuss some of the most exciting discoveries being made right now in Egypt. The lecture will discuss several discoveries at the ancient temple complex of Karnak, and will also touch on a controversial topic in Egyptology: the search for Queen Nerfertiti’s lost mummy.

Do you recall the Temples of Karnak and Luxor? Even though most of us have never been there, we can instantly conjure an image of great pillars and sphinx-lined avenues baking in the hot sun, as the cool Nile washes past not far away. It is a classic image of Egypt, embedded in all our minds after countless re-watchings of adventure films and one documentary after another about the site appearing on the History, Discovery, National Geographic Channels, and PBS as well, or course. 

Well it looks like the collective memories of the world regarding that famous site may no longer be complete, as Egyptian archaeologists have recently unearthed several new features around the complex that may help us understand how these important ceremonial centers functioned in Ancient Egypt. 

It turns out that the spectacular ” Avenue of the Sphinxes” is much longer than everyone thought. Hundreds of nearly identical statues have been discovered along what was once an ancient roadway connecting the temples of Karnak and Luxor. 


A new temple has been unearthed in the vicinity of the Temple Complex at Karnak. The newly discovered structure was devoted to Amon Re, like many of the other temples at the site were.  Amon was kind of like the “Patron God” of the ancient city of Thebes, where the complex is located. Amon Re is the combination of the gods Amon and Re, basically a  “super god”. As Thebes was an important spiritual and political center for much of Egyptian history,  Pharohs would build Temples on the site as a symbol of devotion to the powerful God, and also as a show of power and wealth. They would usually try to one-up their predecessors and sometimes even destroyed the constructions of former kings in order to build their “improved” version on the site.

The title given to Amon Re in the recently unearthed temple is ” The One Who Hears The Petitions (Prayers)”. As Amun was a very important diety in Ancient Egypt for a very long time, many Pharohs championed his Temple and his name. But to each Pharoh Amon represented something slightly different. The character and title of the god changed sometimes to suit the character of the different kings who worshiped him. The newly discovered Temple may add to our knowledge of the rich history and mythology surrounding one of ancient Egypt’s most holy sites. New research on the structure, as well as a statue of Remeses II discovered within it, will be presented in the lecture.


Another interesting discovery that will be discussed is the Roman baths dating to the second century BC that were unearthed in front of the Karnak temple complex in 2006. The baths are a fascinating example of the fusion of Greco-Roman and Egyptian style in architecture and culture that began with Alexander the Great’s Conquest of Egypt in 332 BC and continued for the better part of the next nine hundred years. Mosaic images of dolphins, a very exotic sight in sweltering Upper Egypt, mingle with Tilapia, a native Egyptian fish, and floral designs based on plants introduced from the East before the days of Alexander.



The site features two circles of “hip-bathtubs” whose lazy-boy-esque appearance have attracted the lens of many a photographer, but beyond that the site is teaching archaeologists a lot about the evolution of Hellenistic baths in Ancient Egypt. It’s unique system of heating water includes features unlike any found in other parts of Egypt, or the Greek world. In the words of the renowned Egyptian archaeologist Salah El Mesekh, who manages the site, “these baths teach us more about how the Romans spent their free time- their social time”.  The lecture will also discuss a Roman Era winery recently unearthed.

Tomb Tut head

Last, but definitely not least, the lecture will address the flurry of debate surrounding the theory that Queen Nefertiti’s lost mummy may be hidden  behind one of the walls within King Tut’s tomb. Our Curator of Egyptology, Dr. Tom Hardwicke recently wrote a blog featuring his take on the issue. Dr. Waziri and El Masekh will discuss the evidence behind this theory and the feasibility of excavating to determine if there is indeed something there.

Be sure to check out Update in Egyptology A lecture on new discoveries in Egypt this Wednesday, October 26, 2016 starting at 6:30pm!


HMNS Weekly Happenings

Spirits and Skeletons!

Sponsored by Audi Central Houston

Calling all ghosts and ghouls, monsters and mummies, witches and werewolves: Houston’s favorite Halloween party — the one and only Spirits & Skeletons — is back at HMNS! With the entire Museum open you can shake your stuff with a stegosaurus, grab a drink with a skink and get spellbound by bewitching gems, all to live music and your favorite hits played by The Space Rockers with fantastic food trucks parked right outside. Whether you go with scary and spooky or fab and kooky — dress up, party the night away at HMNS and we’ll put a spell on you!


Lecture – Future Humans by Scott Solomon

evolution astronaut

Tuesday, October 25, 2016 at 6:30pm

Tickets $18, Members $12

Drawing on fields from genomics to medicine and the study of our microbiome, evolutionary biologist Dr. Scott Solomon draws on the explosion of discoveries in recent years to examine the future evolution of our species. But how will modernization—including longer lifespans, changing diets, global travel and widespread use of medicine and contraceptives—affect our evolutionary future? Surprising insights, on topics ranging from the rise of online dating and Cesarean sections to the spread of diseases such as HIV and Ebola, suggest that we are entering a new phase in human evolutionary history—one that makes the future less predictable and more interesting than ever before.


Solomon of Rice University will present an entertaining review of the latest evidence of human evolution in modern times. Join us at HMNS this evening which is the book launch event for the new book is “Future Humans: Inside the Science of Our Continuing Evolution.”

This event is co-sponsored by the Baker Institute’s Civic Scientist Program.


Lecture – Update in Egyptology by Mostafa Waziri and Salah El-Masekh


Wednesday, October 25, 2016 at 6:30pm

Tickets $27, Members $19

In the Valley of the Kings recent excavations and CT scanning by Japanese investigators on the Tomb of King Tut have revealed evidence of another burial chamber next to the tomb of king. Dr. Mostafa Waziri will overview the extensive work by international teams at the site and also explain the theory that this is the tomb of the famed queen Nefertiti, Tutankhamun’s mother.


Reflecting the whims and ideas of many architects and kings over 2,000 years, the colorful history of the Temples of Karnak—the largest temple complex ever built—will be told through examining old and new excavations. Salah El-Masekh’s extensive research brings a new understanding to the function of the temple complex. El-Masekh will also discuss the most recent excavations at Karnak, including a public Roman bath and harbor that is said was used for the boat of the god Amun for traveling across the Nile to bless the souls of the pharaohs who were buried on the west bank.


Both of these distinguished speakers are with the Egyptian Antiquities Authority. Mostafa Waziri is director of excavations at the Valley of the Kings. Salah El-Masekh’s is director of excavations at the Karnak temple complex.


And be sure to check out these events happening at HMNS Sugarland!


Museum of Madness and Mayhem Haunted House – ages 15 and up only.
Friday, October 21st and Friday October 28th, 7- 11 pm  

Keep checking this page for ghoulish details as they emerge.

Universal symbol for a dead pirate.

Universal symbol for a dead pirate.

Any zombie apocalypse expert knows that prisons are a prime spot to take refuge…if you dare! Don’t miss our new take on the scary side of science as we present Fort Bend’s only teen/adult haunted house, on two consecutive Friday nights. Step into the darkened museum after hours to experience the Museum of Madness and Mayhem Haunted House, presented in collaboration with Houston Zombie Walk. This interactive haunted house features zombies, strolling characters, Wilbur’s Mine of Madness, the Dollhouse of Death, Night of the Living Dead, and the Paleontology Hall of Horror exhibits.  Join us for bone chilling fun at Sugar Land’s only adult haunt – ages 15 and up only


Magical Maze and Goose Bumps Haunted House  – Family Event
Saturday, October 22nd and Saturday, October 29th, 10 a.m. to Noon  

Sugar Land 118

Bring the whole family for Spooky Saturdays at HMNS Sugar Land! Explore our magical Butterfly Garden Maze where you can play the pumpkin toss game, snap a photo, get your face painted and do a little early trick or treating. Calling all witches, ghosts and ghouls, will your costume be the one that rules? Be sure to wear your best costume for the Grand Costume Parade – we’ll have prizes to be won! Don’t forget to visit the family friendly Goose Bumps Haunted House too, it’s fun for monsters of all ages. New tricks and treats await around each corner for every pirate and princess – it’ll be a boo bash to remember!


Educator How-to: Learn to Draw a Celtic Triquetra

At the Houston Museum of Natural Science, we know that people are as much a part of natural science as rocks and dinosaurs. That’s why we love social studies and maintain exhibits like the John P. McGovern Hall of the Americas and the Hall of Ancient Egypt. We find the development of societies fascinating!

The historical Celts, a diverse group of tribal societies in Iron Age Europe, ranged over a large swath of land reaching as far west as Ireland and the Iberian Peninsula, east to central Anatolia, and north to Scotland. The Celts used a three-cornered symbol, known as the triquetra, to adorn everyday items and important ritual objects. Similar tri-cornered symbols are seen in the artwork of many ancient civilizations. It is speculated that the symbol illustrates the uniting of the past, present, and future or birth, life, death. As Christianity spread through Europe, the triquetra was used to help new converts to understand the concept of the Trinity.


It is really simple to draw this ancient knot-work symbol. All you need is paper, a compass, an eraser, and some markers.

First, using a compass, draw a circle of at least 3 inches in diameter in the middle of your paper. Make sure to leave room around the circle, as the resulting knot will be slightly larger than the initial circle. Make sure that you do not adjust the compass after the circle is drawn.


Next, use a pencil to make a point on the circle at the twelve o’clock position. Then, place the point of the compass on this point and use it to make marks where it crosses the circle on each side.   


Now, place the point of the compass on one of the marks made in the previous step. It doesn’t matter which one. Then, draw a semi-circle within the initial circle. It should start at the twelve o’clock point and end in the lower quarter of the circle. The arc does not need to be continued outside of the circle. Make another arc, identical to the first one. The two arcs should cross at the center point of the circle. If they don’t, check to make sure that the compass setting has not been changed.


Then, placing the compass point on the lower tailing end of one of the arcs, mark off another tic on the bottom of the circle.celtic5


Now place the point of the compass on the bottom mark and draw an additional arc from side to side within the circle.


You will now need to enlarge the diameter of the compass a bit. Place the compass point back onto the marks made in the upper half of the circle. From each point, draw another arc within the circle, and extending a little beyond its border. It is important to make sure the arcs are extend a bit outside of the circle so they’ll meet up when the arcs are all drawn.


Pick a point where one of the knot strips intersects another, and make it pass over the other, erasing the lines from the underside from within the “over” strip. The next pass for the knot strip, following the same strand, will be to go under the next intersection, so erase appropriately. At this point ,you may erase the initial circle and the arc marks.


Now your trisquetra is complete! Color it in! See designs like this and others this summer in the Medieval Madness Xplorations Summer Camp.


Learn Hieroglyphics When You Become a Volunteer Docent at HMNS!

by Gillian Callan

Egyptian hieroglyphs. Once thought to be magic writings that contained the secrets to life, they were deciphered by Thomas Young and Jean Francois Champollion in the early 1800’s. What mysteries did they contain? For the majority of the visitors to the Hall of Ancient Egypt, the glyphs are still a mystery – a bunch of squiggles with pictures of animals interspersed. But for the HMNS Hieroglyph Study Group, they are a chance to learn and practice the language of ancient Egypt.

hieroglyphs at the louvre

Egypt fascinated me from early childhood, but I thought I would never get to study or visit Egypt (I did visit nine years ago, and it was fantastic!). So I thought about what I could learn about Egypt without a degree or a plane ticket. I decided that I would learn hieroglyphs. Mark Collier and Bill Manley wrote a book called How to read Egyptian Hieroglyphs. From them, I learned the basics. Then about four years ago, I met a fellow HMNS volunteer who was also interested in hieroglyphs. Another year passed and another volunteer joined HMNS and mentioned that he was also interested in hieroglyphs and asked if we could start a study group. And that’s how we got started.

In order to make our study time worthwhile to the museum, we tasked ourselves with translating as many of the inscriptions in the Egypt hall as we could. To date, we have completed seven of the longer inscriptions and started on several more. The inscriptions fall into two categories: formulaic writings and hymns. The formulaic writings are offerings to the gods. While they follow a set format, we usually find something different in each of them. The hymns are much more difficult. Poetry in any language is harder to interpret than prose, and Egyptian hymns are no different. It also helps if you understand something of the culture of ancient Egypt.


Hieroglyphs on the coffin of Ankh-Hap. His name appears in the lower left-hand corner of this photo.

While our translations have not been published to the volunteer website, we did create a flip book with useful translations from objects in the hall. In the flip book, we included a translation of Ankh-Hap’s name on his coffin. Ankh-Hap is the mummy owned by HMNS. We found the name of Gemshuankh (aka the Jolly Green Giant) on his coffin, but then he got renamed to Ankhemma’at, so we revised his translation. We located Ptolemy’s cartouche on the replica Rosetta Stone. (We even located it in Demotic and Greek!) By the way, all the cartouches on the Rosetta Stone belong to Ptolemy V, Epiphanes – no Cleopatra, no wives’ names, just Ptolemy. The idea behind the flip book is that someone working or giving a tour in the hall can take the flip book out of the touchcart (there is one book in each cart) and take it to an object in the hall and show visitors appropriate glyphs and what they mean. One of my favorites is to show the bird in Bakenrenes’ name, followed by the rest of her name. It is repeated several times on the cartonnage coffin and visitors get a kick out of being able to recognize the glyphs.


The coffin of Bakenrenes. Hieroglyphs appear in the yellow bands across the coffin.


A close-up of the bottom band.

Egyptian hieroglyphs are not a phonetic script, nor are they picture writing. They are a complex combination of phonetics, picture writing and “syllables”. They can be written left to right, right to left and in columns that also have either a left/right or right/left orientation. The favored direction was right to left. But on coffins, the glyphs were written from head to foot. Writers of hieroglyphs also, on occasion, used shortcuts. They fitted the message into the space available and left out what they could, making it difficult at times to read the message correctly. Kind of like today’s usage of text shortcuts like LOL (laugh out loud) or BTW (by the way).


The HMNS Hieroglyph Study Group meets every Sunday in the Volunteer Library around noon. Our current members are Gillian Callen, John Cochran, David Santana and Scott Brown, all HMNS volunteers. I also teach basic hieroglyphs to willing volunteers. Last summer I taught a three-day session on glyphs including grammar and sentence structure. While I am self-taught and by no means an expert, I can introduce you to the basics and give you a feel for the ancient Egyptian language. These classes are only open to HMNS volunteers and staff. So, if you are interested, find out about becoming a volunteer and then you can sign up for a class. Then when you walk through the Hall of Ancient Egypt, those squiggles will jump out at you and make at least a little bit of sense. Happy translating!

Editor’s Note: Gillian is an HMNS volunteer docent.