We recently received a question through our YouTube channel asking about Leonardo the Mummified Dinosaur. Our viewer wanted to know what evidence there is to support that Leonardo might have had a crop. We passed the question along to Dr. Bakker, our visiting curator of Paleontology.
“In most of the articles I’ve read about Leonardo mention is made of evidence of a crop. Can someone tell me the nature of that evidence? Is the evidence sufficient for a near certainty, a likelihood or only a possibility?”
A crop in today’s birds is a specialized pouch, an enlargement of the gullet, where food can be stored before final swallowing. Sometimes there are glands; sometimes not. Usually there are muscular walls and partial partitions so the bird can control swallowing and regurgitation.
The throat skin in Leonardo is distended below the jaws in the region where a crop would be expected to be if Leo were a big turkey. The distention is globular, swollen side-to-side, and not flattened, and the skin shows only weak indications of folds and furrows. That’s why everyone, from the very beginning, labeled this distention a “crop”.
The hi-energy x-rays showed no internal structures here. And there were no small ferrous-iron specks of the sort seen in the stomach and intestinal zones, where masses of chewed vegetation were packed. A chip was removed from the crop, exposing some of the interior – there were no masses of vegetation. The distention was filled with very fine, very clean sand.
Next time we x-ray Leo, we will probe the interior of the “crop” with greater intensity.
Other duck-bill mummies do show a distention in this area but these specimens are flattened side-to-side so the distention appears more like a dew-lap than a crop. Leo is unique in showing so much three dimensional preservation of internal cavities.
Working in the museum’s permanent collections I focus on artifacts and specimens – after all, that’s my job. But it’s not just the artifacts and specimens that tell a story around here. It’s the people too. Behind all the exhibits and public areas are many folks hard at work to make science and this museum relevant and memorable to you.
Lately, thanks to a recent staff luncheon given by the HMNS Guild and some quick conversations in the halls, I’ve been able to get caught up with my colleagues to find out what they doing behind the scenes.
Dr. Dan Brooks just co-authored an article on the birds of the Pongos Basin in the Peruvian Andes, published in the Wilson Journal of Ornithology. (You can read blog posts by Dan here.) Several HMNS specimens were cited in the article, which is very cool. (Plus, I learned what a pongo is. Look it up for yourself and impress your friends and neighbors.)
The anthropology section in collections storage has been organized and practically transformed by Beth. She has ensured that all those wondrous artifacts are properly labeled, stored, and easily located. You have no idea how much work this entailed! Imagine having all of your stuff from attic to basement labeled and neatly put away – with a color-coded key map. Truly, my cold registrar’s heart is warmed and I get a little misty-eyed just thinking about it.
Anytime you get an in-house phone call that begins with, “I hate to bother you but” you know that intro is going to end with “do you know where David Temple is?”. And I do know for certain that he’s been up in Seymour working on the museum’s ongoing dino dig with Dr. Bakker (read his posts here). I doubled-checked with his wife Nicole.
When I climb upstairs to run some mail through the meter I notice it’s pretty calm in the Admin offices. I think they’ve all finally rested up from last week’s very successful fundraising gala. Poking my head into Kat’s office for a quick chat I found out that the education department is immersed in HMNS overnights, teachers’ workshops, and getting prepared for a full summer of a multitude of classes. Don’t forget to register your kids pronto, those classes fill up fast.
Next, I quickly check on lunch plans with Tammy, manager of the museum’s mineral and fossil shop, who’s busy with all sorts of new specimens and arranging them in the cases. She also provided her expertise at the gala’s mineral and fossil auction. Passing by the museum’s visitor services desk I stop briefly to see if I have any mail. It’s been a really busy day, probably due to the start of spring break, and Martha’s expression says it all.
There are some odds-and-ends photographs I need to drop off to the Volunteer Office, an always-upbeat place. They’re happy to have found good homes for all the beardies but were so bereft without them, they bought one at the gala. He’s been aptly named Ka-ching.
I actually don’t need anything from the exhibits guys, I’m just curious to see what they’re working on. Today they are preparing one of our exhibit halls for the upcoming Terra Cotta Warriors exhibit. Mike and Glen are repairing some walls and ceiling tiles. Soon they’ll be full bore into construction and layout. Preston and Lex pour over exhibit floor plans.
The last colleague I touch base with is Christine, our live animal program manager. She’s been out to a school with our Wildlife on Wheels program, sounds like the first-graders were adorable. Next she demonstrates the Blue-footed Booby bird dance. We both crack up. I head back to the relative quiet of Collections knowing that even though I only spoke to a small portion of the staff, and not at any great length, this museum, along with its artifacts and specimens, is in excellent hands.
The museum is closed tomorrow, Saturday March 7. We apologize for any inconvenience this might cause. However, the museum will be preparing all day for its biggest party of the year, to be held that night – our annual Gala. This event helps fund the museum so that everyone can enjoy our exhibits, lectures, and science classes for the other 364 days a year.
This year’s gala is calledThe Wrecking Ball, because in addition to funding our standard educational programs and operations, proceeds will also go to support the Museum’s Capital Campaign – HMNS@100: Building For A Second Century of Science. The funds raised will enable to museum to expand our education and exhibition spaces to accommodate both our swelling numbers of visitors and the community’s escalating interest in thought-provoking exhibitions and informative educational programs.
If you would like to hlp support the future of science education, please consider a donation to the museum – for more information, or to donate online, simply click here.
There’s always a lot happening at the Houston Museum of Natural Science – especially during the holiday season. Today’s post is just one of the 12 ideas for fabulous family fun we’ve put together for you (it’s a take-off of everyone’s favorite holiday classic, The 12 Days of Christmas) We’ll be sharing the possibilities here every day until Christmas Eve. Best of all, most are activities that last past the holiday season – some, year round. You can also check them all out now at the spiffy new 12 Days of HMNS web site.
Today, hunt dinosaurs with famed paleontologist and HMNS curator of paleontology Dr. Robert Bakker. The video was shot in May 2008 on the ranch in Montana where Leonardo, the mummified dinosaur on display in Dinosaur Mummy CSI: Cretaceous Science Investigation, was found. Dr. Bakker tells us how a fossil like Leonardo was made, then takes us through the process of fossil hunting – from how to train your eye to find the smallest fragments to what to do once you’ve got a good layer of fossils going.
And – don’t miss Leonardo’s world premiere at HMNS! This spectacular mummified fossil – covered 90% with skin and including mummified internal organs – is going back to his permanent home in Malta after the exhibit closes on Jan. 11. Leonardo is truly a wonder – it evokes, more than any fossil I’ve ever seen, a real sense of what dinosaurs must have been like in life. You won’t want to miss seeing this in person.