Sea Rex 3D swims into IMAX!

Explore an amazing underwater universe inhabited by larger-than-life creatures that ruled the oceans millions of years ago in Sea Rex 3D – now showing in HMNS IMAX!.

Mosasaurus hoffmannii skeleton on display at the
Maastricht Natural History Museum,
The Netherlands

Guided by Georges Cuvier, considered by many to be the father of paleontology, viewers learn about predators such as the ichthyosaur, plesiosaur, and mosasaur. These ancient creatures could grow up to 50 feet and could weigh as much as 15 tons.

Learn about the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous eras and how life evolved in the deep oceans of Earth. See a mosasaur battle the Great White Shark’s ancestor and witness the mating habits of the plesiosaur.

You’re going to love the film’s time line of the history of the Earth, showing the evolution of the first single cell organisms to the mammals that evolved and began to walk on land. What I found fascinating is the amount of time each of the dinosaurs ruled the world in comparison to humans. Dinosaurs walked the earth for over 160 million years, while humans have only been around for about 200,000 years comparatively.

Evidence of giant marine predators were first discovered in a mine shaft in the Dutch city of Maastricht in 1770, when the partial skull of a Mosasaurus hoffmannii was uncovered. Sea Rex 3D takes you on a journey from the creation of earth until the meteor that killed off 95% of life 65 million years ago. Don’t miss this incredible story about our planet’s history and the monsters that ruled the sea for over 120 million years.

Can’t see the video? Click here.

Sea Rex 3D is now showing in the Wortham IMAX Theater. See show times on our Film Schedule.

Edward Hitchcock

Archaeopteryx: Icon of Evolution is coming back, a week from tomorrow! Don’t miss the exhibit as it flies into the Houston Museum of Natural Science in Sugar Land, opening Oct. 22, 2010. Famed paleontologist Bob Bakker provides more insight into this unique fossil.

The Reverend Edward Hitchcock -
The Man Who Predicted Archaeopteryx – a Quarter Century before the Discovery.

Who discovered Archaeopteryx?  In 1861 Herman von Meyer recognized a Solnhofen fossil as a bird.

But another scientist had predicted that Archaeopteryx HAD to exist, back in 1836.

Edward Hitchcock was the State Geologist of Massachusetts, and a leading Biblical scholar of the time. He was a serial creationist who believed that Creation was accomplished through many events spread across geological ages. Hitchcock was a Jurassic specialist who dug hundreds of fossil footprints from the Connecticut Valley. From this evidence, he figured out that there must have been  birds in the Jurassic. Some of Hitchcock’s Jurassic birds were as tiny as sandpipers. Others were as large as rhinos.

Hitchcock didn’t have any good fossil skeletons from his Jurassic digs. But still he  reconstructed the toe bones from the imprints in the rock.  First he ran all sorts of living animals on muddy fields, from turkeys to frogs to raccoons to barefoot farm boys. He diagrammed where the toes fit in the footprint. Soon the Reverend Hitchcock knew more about the animal sole than any other scholar.

Here are the clues he gathered from scrutinizing feet:

  • The dominant beasts who left their tracks in Jurassic rocks walked on their hind-feet – like birds.
  • The Jurassic creatures walked with their ankles high off the ground in long strides – like birds.
  • These animals had three long hind toes spread out, with the longest toe in the middle – like birds.
  • There was a little toe on the inside of the foot, pointing inwards and backwards – like birds.

Then Hitchcock reconstructed the details of the foot skeleton of the Jurassic track-makers.  He discovered that joints where two toe bones came together usually were supported by a thick pad of skin. So, using the pad marks in fossil tracks, Hitchcock worked out the toe bone geometry. The first toe had two bones, the second had three, the third had four, and the fifth toe was absent. The toe-bone design was exactly like a bird’s!

Hitchcock never suspected that his track-makers were dinosaurs, because at the time all dinosaurs were reconstructed with lizard-like feet, five-toed and flat-footed.

One discovery bothered Hitchcock – occasionally he found imprints of the forefeet where his animals had rested. The fingers had sharp claws, things that normal birds didn’t carry.

By 1840, Hitchcock was sure that a special subclass of birds had ruled the Jurassic – birds with clawed hands.

But where were the fossil bones?

In 1861 the first skeleton of Archaeopteryx was discovered. The bones testified that Hitchcock had been right. Here was a bird with feathers and toes arranged perfectly to make Hitchcock’s tracks. Plus, the hands had sharp claws.

In 1868, Professors Thomas Henry Huxley and John Phillips added more proof that the Jurassic had been ruled by birds. They restudied bones of meat-eating dinosaurs and exposed the mistakes in previous reconstructions. Dinosaurs were NOT flat-footed at all. Instead, carnivorous dinosaurs had bird-style hind feet that fit Hitchcock’s tracks. Hitchcock’s Subclass of Jurassic birds turned out to be dinosaurs!

Archaeopteryx was both a bird and a dinosaur.

In the 1990’s, Chinese discoveries showed that many carnivorous dinosaurs had feathers.

Homeosaurus a Living Fossil

Beasts of land and skies and the winner of the longevity award

The descendants  of Homeosaurus are alive and well today in New Zealand.

Homeosaurs looked like plump lizards from the outside. But their inner structure was distinctive. The skull was rigid so the snout couldn’t flex the way a lizard’s can. Plus, the teeth worked like self-sharpening scissors to slice through tough-skinned prey.

Tuatara, Nga Manu, Waikanae, New Zealand, 15 April 2006
Tuatara
Creative Commons License photo credit: PhillipC

Homeosaurs were the Ultimate Jurassic Survivors. They came from an old group that first evolved far back in the preceding Period, the Triassic. Today a homeosaur descendant, the Tuatara, still lives along the coast of New Zealand. No other family of Jurassic reptile has lasted so long with such little change.

How did they do it? What’s the secret behind homeosaur survival? We don’t know….yet. What do you think?

The Man Who Made Fossil Fish Famous

Our Archaeopteryx show has bedazzling fossils – the only Archaeopteryx skeleton in the New World, complete with clear impressions of feathers. Plus frog-mouthed pterodactyls, fast-swimming Sea Crocs, and slinky land lizards. Today we learn about the Louis Agassiz and his theories.

Louis Agassiz (1807-1873)

Paris and the Lure of Fish, 1836
Agassiz grew up in Switzerland where he excelled as a student in  chemistry and natural history. He went to Paris to study fish fossils under the Father of Paleontology, Baron Georges Cuvier. The geological history of fish seemed muddled at the time. Agassiz brought order to the fins and scales.

“There’s order in the way fish changed through the ages…” Agassiz concluded. He was the first to map out the long history of fish armor, fish jaws and fish tails.

1) The earliest time periods, the Paleozoic Era, most bony fish carried heavy armor in the form of thick scales covered with dense, shiny bone.

2) In the middle Periods, the Mesozoic, the armored fish became rarer and were replaced by fish with thin, flexible scales.

3) In the later Periods, the Cenozoic, thin-scaled fish took over in nearly all habitats.

4) Today, the old-fashioned thick scales persist only in a few fresh-water fish like the gar.

5) Tails changed too. The oldest bony fish had shark-like tails, with the vertebral column bending upwards to support the top of the fin. Later fish had more complicated tail bones, braced by special flanges, and the base of the tail was more symmetrical.

6) Jaws in the earliest bony fish were stiff, like the jaws of crocodiles. Later fish developed jaw bones that could swing outwards and forwards.

Discovery of the Ice Age
As he traveled across Europe, Agassiz saw evidence of giant ice sheets that had covered the mountains and plains. According to Agassiz’s theory, New England too had been invaded by mile-high ice layers. Giant hairy elephants – woolly mammoths – had frolicked in the frigid habitats. At first,  scholars harrumphed at Agassiz’s idea of a Glacial Period.  But by the mid 1840’s the theory was proven beyond a reasonable doubt.

Boston 1846: Toast of the Town & the New Museum
Fish and glaciers made Agassiz the most famous scientist of his time. When he came to Boston in the 1846, his lectures were so successful that the New England intellectuals wouldn’t let him leave. Poets and politicians, rich merchants and artists all helped raise funds to get Agassiz a professorship at Harvard. He repaid the support by working tirelessly to build a grand laboratory of science and education at Harvard – the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Opened in the 1859,  the MCZ has been a leader in fossil studies ever since.

Design in Nature
Agassiz’s interests spread beyond fish and glaciers. He sought the Plan of Creation, the key to understanding all of Nature. Was it  Evolution? No. Agassiz rejected any notion that natural processes somehow had transformed one species into another. He was a fierce exponent of the theory of Serial Creation: every species of fossil creature was created to fill its ecological role in its special geological time zone.

Darwin and Agassiz
Though he fought Darwin’s theories for his whole life, Agassiz’s work in fact provided support for the new views of evolution. The long trends in fish fins and scales were best explained by Natural Selection. Agassiz’s best students at Harvard went on to become strong supporters of Darwinism.  Endowed faculty positions were established in Agassiz’s name.  Agassiz Professorships were given to Alfred Sherwood Romer, the greatest Darwinian  paleontologist of the 20 century, and to Stephen Jay Gould, the most eloquent defender of Darwin in the last thirty years.

Don’t miss Archaeopteryx: Icon of Evolution, currently on display at HMNS. To read more about Agassiz and Darwin, check out my earlier blog.