We’d like to introduce you to the four new species of African house bats

Editor’s note: This blog post is a summation of “New Species of Scotophilus (Chiroptera: Vespertiliondae) from Sub-Saharan Africa,” written by HMNS Curator of Vertebrate Zoology Daniel M. Brooks and John W. Bickham, and published as a monograph in the Occasional Papers of the Museum at Texas Tech University.

Sub-Saharan Africa is a hotbed of biological diversity. A seemingly endless stream of new species has been discovered from different locales every year for centuries. The idea of this great biodiversity is widely accepted and, in fact, celebrated. But advances in genomic sequencing and morphology and an increased ability to obtain reliable specimens while recording their location shows that we’ve really just hit the tip of the iceberg. Many individual clades (or groups) of species should actually be distinguished further from each other as unique species themselves.

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Distribution of the four new species in Africa

The conservation question

Hold on a second here. Why is this important? What kind of difference could it make if there are 15 or 19 or 30 species of house bats in the world?

Glad you asked! Having an accurate taxonomy (naming and classification system) guides conservation efforts, while incomplete records impede these same efforts. Look at it this way: if you don’t know that a species exists, how can you protect it? In our modern era, we’re seeing rapid climate change and urbanization, which puts habitats under stresses to which species cannot quickly adapt. Therefore, having complete records allows us to make more meaningful conservation efforts because we have a better picture of what we’re trying to conserve. Having an accurate taxonomy also helps us to learn about biogeography, evolution, biodiversity and biology in general.

Now on to the bats!

As of 2005, there were 15 species of Scotophilus (house bats) documented. These were distributed between Indonesia, mainland Asia, Madagascar, Reunion Island and mainland Africa. However, these 15 species do not accurately reflect our current knowledge of Scotophilus biodiversity.

A 2009 study by Robert G. Trujillo sequenced cytochrome-b (part of an organism’s DNA) in Scotoplilus. Cytochrome-b is found in mitochondrial DNA, which is the genetic material in mitochondria (the “energy factory” of cells, if you will). These sequences are very useful in determining species differentiation.

With this information, Trujillo identified four distinct clades (branches on a species family tree). These include clades 8, 9, 11 and 12. Brooks and Bickham examined specimens from each of these lineages to see if there were enough physical differences between the organisms to further classify them as distinct species.

The clades and species of Scotophilus studied for the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene by Trujillo et al. (2009). The new species described in this  paper are circled.

The clades and species of Scotophilus studied for the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene by Trujillo et al. (2009). The new species described in this paper are circled.

Brooks and Bickham used skull and body measurements to compare specimens of each lineage with specimens representing the appropriate nominate — “textbook specimens” — of a given species).

Basically, they got very specific: measuring specimens from one predetermined area, and compared them to the nominate “textbook specimens” to see what physical differences there may or may not be.

When they compared the specimens, we saw that the genetic differences between the clades matched up with physical differences, which is why I’m proud to introduce to you four new species of African house bats (Scotophilus)!

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Study skin of Scotophilus andrewreborii holotype

 

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Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus andrewreborii holotype

Scotophilus andrewreborii
Andrew Rebori’s House Bat

It is our honor to name this species for Andrew N. Rebori (1948–2011). Rebori unknowingly touched lives and inspired many individuals, including many museum professionals. He always maintained a keen interest in animals, especially bats, which exemplified his spirit and attitude toward life: “Take flight every new day!”

Type locality: Kenya: Rift Valley Province, Nakuru District, 12 km S, 4 km E Nakuru (0º24′S, 36º07′E).

Diagnosis: Scotophilus andrewreborii is distinguished from S. dinganii from Natal by a combination of external and craniodental features. S. andrewreborii averages slightly larger in body size for most characters. Additionally the dorsal pelage in S. andrewreborii is more reddish than the browner dorsal fur of S. dinganii, and the ventral pelage in S. andrewreborii is orange versus a much darker grey in S. dinganii.

Cranial measurements in S. andrewreborii are smaller, with non-overlapping measurements for braincase breadth for males, and shorter mean skull length (18.9 in S. andrewreborii vs. 19.6 mm for S. dinganii), narrower zygomatic, shorter braincase height, narrower interorbital width (4.4 vs. 4.8 mm), decreased breadth across upper molars, and decreased breadth across upper canines for females.

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Study skin of Scotophilus livingstonii holotype

 

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus livingstonii holotype.

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus livingstonii
holotype

Scotophilus livingstonii
Livingstone’s House Bat

It is our honor to name this species for the late David Livingstone (1813–1873). At a time when most of Africa was barely known compared to today, Livingstone, a young Scot of humble means, explored central Africa. Between 1841 and his death in 1873, Livingstone made several expeditions into the interior of the continent, mapping uncharted lands and searching for navigable waterways.

Type locality: Kenya: Western Province, Kakamega District, Ikuywa River Bridge, 6.5 km S, 19 km E Kakamega (0º13′N, 34º55′E).

Diagnosis: Scotophilus livingstonii is distinguished from S. dinganii from Natal by a combination of external and craniodental features. S. livingstonii averages larger overall in body size. Additionally the dorsal pelage in S. livingstonii is more reddish-mahogany than the browner dorsal fur of S. dinganii, and the ventral abdominal pelage in S. livingstonii is light buff vs. a much darker grey in S. dinganii.

Scotophilus livingstonii is also distinguished from S. dinganii from Natal by cranio-dental measurements. Male S. livingstonii have a shorter mean skull length, and females have a longer mean mandibular length.

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Study skin of Scotophilus ejetai holotype

 

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus ejetai holotype.

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus ejetai holotype

Scotophilus ejetai
Ejeta’s House Bat

This species is named in honor of Dr. Gebisa Ejeta, Distinguished Professor of Plant Breeding & Genetics and International Agriculture at Purdue University. He was born and raised in the village of Wollonkomi in west-central Ethiopia. Dr. Ejeta is a plant breeder and geneticist who received the 2009 World Food Prize for his research and development of improved sorghum hybrids resistant to drought and Striga weed. The results of his work have dramatically enhanced the food supply of hundreds of millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.

Type locality: Ethiopia: Orimaya Region, Dogy River Bridge (8º21’43″N, 35º53’02″E). Collected at 1390 m above sea level.

Diagnosis: Scotophilus ejetai is distinguished from S. dinganii from Natal by a combination of external and craniodental features. S. ejetai averages smaller overall in body size, with females presenting non-overlapping forearm length.  Additionally the ventral pelage in S. ejetai has an orange hue, whereas the ventral fur is buff with a greyish abdomen in S. dinganii.

Cranial measurements in S. ejetai are smaller, with non-overlapping measurements for skull length, zygomatic breadth and braincase breadth for males, and zygomatic breadth and braincase breadth for females.

Study skin of Scotophilus trujilloi holotype.

Study skin of Scotophilus trujilloi holotype

 

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus trujilloi holotype.

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus trujilloi holotype

Scotophilus trujilloi
Trujillo’s House Bat

It is our honor to name this species for Dr. Robert Trujillo (b. 1975), whose ground-breaking doctoral dissertation on the molecular systematics of Scotophilus paved the way for the description of the four cryptic species described here. Dr. Trujillo’s dedication to science and environmental stewardship are reflected in his outstanding career in the US Forest Service.

Type locality: Kenya: Coastal Province, Kwale District, Moana Marine Station, 1 km S, 2 km E Ukunda (4º18′S, 39º35′E).

Diagnosis: Scotophilus trujilloi is distinguished from S. viridis from Mozambique Island by a combination of external and craniodental features. S. trujilloi averages larger in body size and shorter in forearm length, with females presenting non-overlapping head-body and forearm lengths. Additionally the dorsal pelage in S. trujilloi is mahogany, whereas the dorsal fur is brown in S. viridis. The ventral pelage in S. trujilloi is orange with a greyish abdomen, whereas the ventral fur is grayish-brown grizzled whitish abdominally in S. viridis.

Cranial measurements in S. trujilloi differ from S. viridis, with shorter mean braincase height in males; and females, as well as non-overlapping mandibular length in females. 

Invasion of the bulbuls: Houston team studies new invasive species

Editor’s note: This blog post is a summation of “Ecology, Behavior, and Reproduction of an Introduced Population of Red-vented Bulbuls (Pycnontus cafer) in Houston, Texas,” written by HMNS Curator of Vertebrate Zoology Daniel M. Brooks and published in The Wilson Journal of Ornithology.

 

Invasive species are (unfortunately) nothing new to Texas. Defined as an “introduced species that adversely affect the habitats and bioregions they invade economically, environmentally, and/or ecologically,” invasive species (aka invasive exotics or exotics) can have wide-ranging negative impacts on regions.

Species such as giant salvinia, feral hogs, zebra mussels and nutria constitute invasive species currently wreaking havoc on Texas wildlife, having decimated food sources and changing ecological dynamics, and even threatening other species’ survival in their environmental niches. It’s for this reason that many scientists have begun to study introduced species and their behaviors before they decimate their new habitats.

In light of this, Brooks initiated the Texas Invasive Bird Project in June 2008, a citizen-science study targeting six avian species invading the state. One of these is the red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer). This species was previously unstudied in Houston.

The red-vented bulbul is native to Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka, but has become a well-established invasive species in parts of the Middle East, various tropical Pacific islands … and Houston. In its native and introduced regions, it can be found in a variety of habitats, including urban gardens. In the Houston study, we aimed to determine the ecology, behavior and reproduction of the bulbul through a questionnaire made available at birdwatching clubs, annual birdwatching festivals and circulated on internet list serves. Most of the respondents were either birdwatchers familiar with bulbuls or horticulturalists who maintain diverse gardens.

The results determined that the most frequent activities for the birds included foraging, perching or resting and calling. Ninety-six percent of the reports described residential suburbs as the primary habitat of the birds, with the highest concentrations being found in the Heights neighborhood. In these areas, they were observed perching on 35 species of plants, and feeding on 20. Forty-three percent of the plants they perched on are native to Texas, while only five of the 20 plants they fed on are native to Texas. The most common plants used for perching were also exotic plants (bamboo, crepe myrtle, fig and tallow), which are all found in the native range of the bulbul.

They are generally non-migratory birds. But the largest flocks appear at regular intervals between August and September, and then again from December through January, traveling in flocks of 12 to 22 birds. This matches their patterns in other regions, while their numbers are much smaller in Houston (with gatherings of 20 to 100 birds within their native range).

Ultimately, it seems that bulbuls are not currently a threat to Houston, but they should continue to be closely monitored. While they pose no current negative economic threat as they do in Pacific islands (such as Oahu, where they’ve decimated tropical plant crops), it seems that their largest potential threat in Houston remains through seed dispersal. In this area, they have great potential to disperse noxious weedy seeds, as they have done in Fiji with spiked pepper, guava, and prickly night-shade.

In the meantime, the birds seem to be enjoying their niche in previously untapped resources of other exotic plants brought to Houston and used in gardens, which other birds have not used with great regularity to eat or perch in. However, as the population continues to increase and spread through the region, we will have to monitor any changes that may occur which could negatively impact native species.

Just Another Day at the Office

Working in the museum’s permanent collections I focus on artifacts and specimens – after all, that’s my job.  But it’s not just the artifacts and specimens that tell a story around here.  It’s the people too.  Behind all the exhibits and public areas are many folks hard at work to make science and this museum relevant and memorable to you.

Lately, thanks to a recent staff luncheon given by the HMNS Guild and some quick conversations in the halls, I’ve been able to get caught up with my colleagues to find out what they doing behind the scenes.

In my own home department of Collections, Dr. Dirk Van Tuerenhout recently gave a lecture on the Birth of Christianity exhibit in the IMAX. (You can read blog posts by Dirk here.)

Dr. Dan Brooks just co-authored an article on the birds of the Pongos Basin in the Peruvian Andes, published in the Wilson Journal of Ornithology. (You can read blog posts by Dan here.)  Several HMNS specimens were cited in the article, which is very cool.  (Plus, I learned what a pongo is.  Look it up for yourself and impress your friends and neighbors.)

The anthropology section in collections storage has been organized and practically transformed by Beth.  She has ensured that all those wondrous artifacts are properly labeled, stored, and easily located.  You have no idea how much work this entailed!  Imagine having all of your stuff from attic to basement labeled and neatly put away – with a color-coded key map.  Truly, my cold registrar’s heart is warmed and I get a little misty-eyed just thinking about it.

Anytime you get an in-house phone call that begins with, “I hate to bother you but” you know that intro is going to end with “do you know where David Temple is?”.  And I do know for certain that he’s been up in Seymour working on the museum’s ongoing dino dig with Dr. Bakker (read his posts here).  I doubled-checked with his wife Nicole.

When I climb upstairs to run some mail through the meter I notice it’s pretty calm in the Admin offices.  I think they’ve all finally rested up from last week’s very successful fundraising gala.  Poking my head into Kat’s office for a quick chat I found out that the education department is immersed in HMNS overnights, teachers’ workshops, and getting prepared for a full summer of a multitude of classes.  Don’t forget to register your kids pronto, those classes fill up fast.

Next, I quickly check on lunch plans with Tammy, manager of the museum’s mineral and fossil shop, who’s busy with all sorts of new specimens and arranging them in the cases.  She also provided her expertise at the gala’s mineral and fossil auction.  Passing by the museum’s visitor services desk I stop briefly to see if I have any mail.  It’s been a really busy day, probably due to the start of spring break, and Martha’s expression says it all.

There are some odds-and-ends photographs I need to drop off to the Volunteer Office, an always-upbeat place.  They’re happy to have found good homes for all the beardies but were so bereft without them, they bought one at the gala.  He’s been aptly named Ka-ching.

Lynn tells me the volunteers are eagerly studying up on the coming exhibits of The Nature of Diamonds and Terra Cotta Warriors: Guardians of China’s First Emperor. Karen’s in the midst of interviewing Ecoteen applicants and Araceli’s booking birthday parties.  Sybil was surrounded by volunteers so I’ll catch up with her later.

I actually don’t need anything from the exhibits guys, I’m just curious to see what they’re working on.  Today they are preparing one of our exhibit halls for the upcoming Terra Cotta Warriors exhibit. Mike and Glen are repairing some walls and ceiling tiles.  Soon they’ll be full bore into construction and layout.  Preston and Lex pour over exhibit floor plans.

The last colleague I touch base with is Christine, our live animal program manager.  She’s been out to a school with our Wildlife on Wheels program, sounds like the first-graders were adorable.  Next she demonstrates the Blue-footed Booby bird dance.  We both crack up.   I head back to the relative quiet of Collections knowing that even though I only spoke to a small portion of the staff, and not at any great length, this museum, along with its artifacts and specimens, is in excellent hands.

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Are You Making a Connection?

So, why are you here? What part of yourself did you bring today? What experience do you want to have? These are the questions I wish I could ask every one of you as you come through the museum’s doors. Then according to your answers I’d play matchmaker, pointing out an exhibit hall, hooking you up with just the right specimen or artifact so you could make a connection.

In today’s increasingly digitized world we are overwhelmed with visual images, most of which we ignore. You come to the museum and we’ve got…uh…more stuff for you to look at. Yet, you’re here. You could have stayed home twitching through a hundred television channels or trawling online for something, anything, about science. But you dealt with traffic and parking to experience something real, so what will you connect with and why?

Everyone coming to the museum brings their own individual history, likes and dislikes and those things obviously factor into the objects they find appealing. Suppose you love all things purple and you really like minerals, it’s no big revelation that one of your favorite specimens at HMNS might be the amethyst geode in the mineral hall. At this point, mentally Rolodex the specimens and artifacts you’ve come to love at HMNS. What do you never tire looking at, what do you always re-visit? Fossils? Shells? Taxidermied wildlife? A Native American pot? You can probably easily state the reasons why, too. Old stuff’s cool, shells are pretty, animals fascinate me, etc., etc. But let’s dig a little deeper.

Model: giraffe
Creative Commons License photo credit: jrsnchzhrs

Think of an object at the museum that caught your attention for no particular reason, it sorta surprised you. It might have been nothing special until you read the label, learned something new, and suddenly you saw that object differently. Or across the gallery something grabbed your eye and you absolutely had to know what that thing was. Aha! A connection’s been made, you’re not completely sure why, but you enjoy it and now it’s a favorite thing to see and share with others when you visit the museum.

Let me assure you, that very real connection between you and your special item can’t be downloaded or digitized. To illustrate I’ll share one of my favorites - but I have to cheat a little. This specimen’s not on exhibit but is part of the vertebrate zoology collection. A few years back a giraffe died of old age at the Houston Zoo and the skull was sent over to Dr. Brooks, our Curator of Vertebrate Zoology. The giraffe was Hi-Lo, whom I remember fondly from my childhood zoo visits (that’s my personal history connection) so I was pleased his skull came into our collections. Then I observed that the horns, those knobby things on a giraffe’s head, are actually bone. Somehow I thought they’d be some sort of spongy cartilage. Who knew? But I gained new insight. Last, for no reason I can defend, I truly love the slender elongated sculptural beauty of the skull. It’s just cool. Yeah, I can google an image of a giraffe’s skull on any computer but it’ll never delight me the way that Hi-Lo’s does.

Ok, a connection’s been made. Where will it take you? Does it inspire enough to pursue further knowledge or is the experience of the connection enough in itself? As a child, the late great Stephen Jay Gould so loved the dinosaur skeletons at the American Museum of Natural History that he became a renowned paleontologist. Me? I enjoy looking at the giraffe’s skull over and over again but am content to remain a registrar. And here’s some more musings regarding our connections with objects. Why do we take photos of our favorite things in museums? Why do we take photos of ourselves with them? Why do we buy replicas of them in the museum gift shop?

Pharaoh hats
Creative Commons License photo credit: Zepfanman.com

Whew, lots of questions in this blog! Now it’s your turn, let’s make this a discussion. Which objects do you think best represent the museum; are there iconic objects that connect with every visitor? Communicate with us; tell us what your favorite HMNS artifacts and specimens are and why. Because, if I could, the last question I’d ask when you go out the museum’s doors would be: Did you make a connection?

Donna Meadows
Associate Registrar, Acquisitions