Chemistry in the Kitchen: The Science Behind Ice Cream

Legend has it that the Roman emperor Nero discovered ice cream. Runners brought snow from the mountains to make the first ice cream.

Making ice cream at home is easy – no mountain marathon required! Just read the instructions below and enjoy your very own homemade ice cream.

ice-cream-bowl
 Creative Commons LicensePhoto Credit: Jessicafm

Materials:
Sugar
Milk
Vanilla
Rock salt
Pint-size baggies – heavy duty
Gallon-size baggies – heavy duty
Measuring cup
Measuring spoons
Spoons

Procedure:
1. Fill the large bag about ½ full of ice.  Add 6 tablespoons of rock salt to the ice.

2. Put ½ cup of milk, ¼ teaspoon of vanilla, and 1 tablespoon of sugar into a smaller baggie and seal.  Put this inside another small baggie and seal.  This will prevent saltwater from seeping into your ice cream.

3. Place the double bagged small baggie into the larger baggie and seal.

4. Shake the baggie until you have ice cream. 

5. Remove the smaller baggie from the larger one.  Wipe off the water, then open it carefully and enjoy your ice cream! 

UPDATE: Check out our Science of Ice Cream video to learn more!

Chemistry in the Kitchen: The Science Behind Butter

stick-of-butter
 Photo credit: booleansplit

People have been enjoying the rich and wonderful taste of butter for more than 6,000 years.  Archaeologists have found pounds of ancient butter buried in the peat bogs of Ireland.  Butter is still made in essentially the same way as it has been for thousands of years.  Roll up your sleeves and make butter like the ancients!

Materials:
Heavy whipping cream – you can buy this at the grocery store
Crackers – any kind you like
Salt
Cheesecloth
Clean baby food jar
Butter knife

Procedure:
1. Fill your baby food jar about ½ full with whipping cream.
2. Add a pinch of salt for taste.
3. Seal the cap on tight.
4. Shake your jar up and down vigorously.
5. You will notice that soon you will have a creamy substance that we know as whipped cream.  You’re not done yet!  Keep shaking!
6. Soon you will have a clump surrounded by a liquid.  The clump is your butter and the liquid is buttermilk.
7. Drink the buttermilk if you like, it’s full of protein.
8. Place your butter in a piece of cheesecloth and squeeze the excess liquid out.
9. Use your butter knife to spread your creation on crackers and enjoy!

Background:
When milk straight from the cow is left to stand it separates into skim milk and cream.  The cream rises to the top.  The cream is full of proteins and fat.  When you shake the cream and agitate the fat globules, they stick together to form butter.  The leftover liquid is called buttermilk and it is full of protein. 

Interested in learning more about cooking and the science behind it? BEYONDbones will be bringing you The Science of Food - a series of videos exploring the science involved in the culinary creations of some of the best chefs in town. Its all part of Big Bite Nite on April 30, an event featuring food from over 30 restaurants all in one location – HMNS.

Crickets: Trick or Treat? Let your little one find out at Tricks, Treats, & T-Rex!

Why would you bother Trick-or-Treating for the same old boring candy? Aren’t you exhuasted from the same old M&Ms, Snickers Bars, and Sour Patch Kids? Do you like a good crunch with nutty overtones? Perhaps you have a love for adding the element of slow-roasting to your main dish or maybe you just like the smell of good old fashioned food coming from your oven! Have you ever thought of adding a little cricket to your crock pot or putting some grasshopper in your gazpacho?

A cricket is looking at you
Creative Commons License photo credit: fdecomite

Throughout human history, bugs have been a traditional source of protein. Did you know that hamburger is roughly 18% protein and 18% fat? Cooked grasshopper is 60% protein and only 6% fat! Shrimp and lobster are also considered arthropods; other creatures that share that phylum? Try insects and spiders – Yummy!

Taste for yourself… or better yet, let your kid do it for you! This Saturday from 10am – 2pm, HMNS is serving up bugs for food at Tricks, Treats & T rex – try our “Cajun Crispy Crickets,” or “Chirpy Chip Cookies”…mmmmmmmmmm Mmmm!

We wouldn’t leave you hanging on all of the other fun stuff happening here – you also get to see Mad Scientists perform crazy chemistry demonstrations, you get to touch real brains and eyeballs, and best yet -your ticket includes a show to a world-renowned illusionist, Steve Wallach! It’s a heck of a deal for $5 (nonmembers) or $4 (members)!

When you purchase your tickets you also get the opportunity of purchasing tickets to Dinosaur Mummy CSI at the group rate!

Tasty Treats: snacks to revive the weary fossil-hunter

Our guest blogger today is Gretchen, a volunteer at the HMNS who traveled with the Paleo team to Seymour in June. In addition to helping the team excavate in the 120 degree heat, Gretchen acted as head chef, feeding the hot, tired, and dirty diggers at the end of each day. In today’s blog, Gretchen shares with us her best recipes to keep up your energy in the field.

As the chief chef, bottle washer and Dimentrodon digger in Seymour for the week of June 2-7, I was asked to share some of my field recipes with you all!

When you are out digging in the Permian red beds it is important to keep your energy levels high. The best way to do so is to eat home-made cookies! Now, to make sure it will stand up to field conditions, you have to find a cookie recipe that is:

  1. Easy
  2. Not too “crumbly”
  3. Very tasty — even after it has sat in 100-degree temperatures in a zip-lock bag in the back of our truck for days!

The hands-down winner and first runner-up are:

Easy Peanut Butter Cookies

1 (14 ounce) can of sweetened condensed milk

¾ cup peanut butter

2 cups of biscuit mix

1-teaspoon of vanilla extract

1 bag of either (choose one) chocolate chips or chocolate chip/peanut butter swirls.

a plate of cookies
Creative Commons License photo credit: djloche

Combine the sweetened condensed milk and peanut butter in a bowl. Beat with an electric mixer at medium speed until blended. Add biscuit mix and vanilla extract and mix well. Put small amounts of the mix on a cookiesheet (1 teaspoon of mix should do the trick.) Flatten with a fork (If you are up to it you can make a pretty crisscross pattern with the fork! But nobody notices this extra effort in the field so it’s up to you!)

Bake at 375 for 6 to 7 minutes or until slightly golden in color.

Cool on a wire rack.

These cookies are yummy and virtually indestructible!

The runner up favorite was:

Newport Desserts 4lb. Lemon-Fruit Cream Bars1
Creative Commons License photo credit: monstershaq2000

Lemon Crispies

¾ cup of shortening

1-cup of sugar

3 large eggs

2 cups of all-purpose flour

¾ teaspoon of baking soda

1/8 teaspoon of salt

2 (3.4-ounce) packages of lemon instant pudding mix.

Beat Shortening at medium speed with an electric mixer until creamy. Gradually add sugar, beating well. Add eggs one at a time, beating well after each addition.

Combine flour and the remaining 3 ingredients; gradually add to shortening mixture, beating well. Drop dough by rounded teaspoonfuls onto lightly greased baking sheets. Bake at 375 farenheit for 8 to 9 minutes or until cookies are lightly browned. Cool one minute on baking sheets; remove to wire racks to cool completely.

I also made traditional “Toll House Cookies” that are a crowd favorite. Just buy a bag of chocolate chips and follow the recipe on the back!

For dinner (with leftovers for lunch the following day) I like to make soup. You can get the soup prepared; put it in a crock pot on low when you leave for the day in the field — and when you get back to the Ranch the soup is hot and ready to go!

I was lucky on this trip that on my way to Seymour I stopped by a roadside farmer’s stand just outside of Dublin, Texas. (For you trivia buffs, the question is: “What is Dublin, Texas world-famous for?” The answer will be at the end of the blog.) At the stand I was able to purchase sweet potatoes (or yams, I can never tell), red potatoes, yellow squash, sweet onions, peaches and fresh eggs. I incorporated these fresh ingredients in my cooking all week long. It’s cool when you can see the garden that your produce came from and the trees that the peaches were pulled off of and the chickens whose eggs you are enjoying. You know that everything is farm-fresh. A real treat for us Houston City Dwellers!

The hands-down favorite soup of the week was:

Monterey Chicken Soup

3 Tablespoons of Olive Oil

1 & ½ medium onion, chopped

2 large garlic cloves, minced (I used 4, garlic is good for you!)

3 (4-ounce) cans of green chilies, diced. (Look for “Hatch Green Chilies” — they are the best and the hot ones are HOT!)

2 yellow squash cubed *

3 red potatoes cubed *

3 teaspoons chili powder

2 teaspoons ground comino

3 teaspoons oregano

12 cups of chicken broth

3 (14&1/2-ounce) cans of tomatoes, diced with juice

4 cups of chicken cubed (I used about 8 thighs cut up.) You can use pre-cooked chicken.

4 cups of frozen corn, thawed (If I had found good-looking corn-on-the-cob I would have scraped the corn from the cobs and used that. Unfortunately, my roadside stand did not have corn – to early in the season.)

2/3 cups of cilantro

Salt and pepper to add some taste

*Not in the original recipe, but with my roadside stand I found that they added great taste to an already great soup!

Heat oil, onion and garlic until transparent. Add chilies and spices and cook for one minute. Add broth and tomatoes and bring to a boil. Add chicken, corn, extra vegetables, and cilantro. Cook 30 minutes or until potatoes and/or chicken is done. Season with salt and pepper for taste.

I served a wonderful Corn Casserole with the soup; which was great the next day for breakfast too!

½ cup of butter, melted

1-cup of sour cream

1 egg

1 can (16-ounce) of whole kernel corn, drained

1 can (16-ounce) of cream style corn, UNdrained

1 (9-ounce) package of corn muffin mix

1 cup of grated cheddar cheese

In a large bowl, mix together butter, sour cream and egg.

Stir in cans of corn and corn muffin mix.

Spoon into a 9-inch square pan (or 2 quart casserole dish)

Bake in a 375-degree oven for 45 minutes or until golden brown.

Remove from oven and top with cheese.

Return to oven for 5 to 10 minutes, or until cheese is melted. Let stand for 5 minutes and serve warm.

Although I really enjoyed cooking for the crew, nothing beats sitting in the hot West Texas sun, digging and brushing carefully through the Permian soil looking for the bones of reptiles and other animals long extinct! We found some pretty cool bones on this trip; including a huge claw and some very tiny bones of an unknown animal!

P.S. Dublin, Texas is the home of Doctor Pepper! You can purchase Doctor Pepper made from the original recipe there. The whole town is covered with Doctor Pepper signs and murals. Dublin is well worth the trip off the main highway to visit.