Off With Its Head! The “De-restoration” of the MCCM Coffin Lid

Greetings, and welcome to my second post on the conservation of a Third-Intermediate-Period coffin lid at the Michael C. Carlos Museum. If you missed the first installment, you can hop over here to catch up.

Cut-away diagram of restoration over

Cut-away diagram of restoration over

After the documentation, research and planning stage, the treatment of the Third-Intermediate Period Coffin Lid is well underway. Solvent tests, chemical spot tests, and pre-restoration photographs helped us to design the treatment. The goal is to reverse all but the most necessary, stabilizing additions to the object.

It is clear that this object has, like other fragile polychromed wooden objects from ancient Egypt, suffered from flaking and powdering of its painted decoration. Indeed Egyptian funerary furniture, if not recently excavated, is likely to have been treated for one of these conditions during its lifetime.

Graphic by Kate Brugioni.

Before-treatment photograph of Coffin Lid (left) and condition-map overlay (right).

However, this particular object was restored with an excessively heavy hand, as is visible in the orange-and-blue head piece. Constructed in modern materials around the ancient head, the tripartite-wig form was glued tightly (and messily) to the ancient wood. On top of the wood, a composite material made of saw dust and wood glue was smeared over the top portions of the object. Where it was pealing away, it was taking ancient painted surface with it!

Photograph by Kate Brugioni.

From the reverse the lighter modern wood at the head contrasts with the darker ancient planks.

 

Photograph by Kate Brugioni.

Detail view of the reverse of the coffin lid, showing the excess of yellow wood glue attaching the modern construction to the ancient wood.

Not only was this “restoration” causing damage, but it also impaired a visual appreciation of the object.The modern paint looked incongruously plastic-like and the combination of orange, pink, and blue colors were unsuited to an Ancient Egyptian object.

It was easy enough to call for the removal of the headpiece, but the actual procedure would be challenging and time-consuming.

First, I undertook a micro-excavation to uncover the joint between the modern and ancient structures.

A view of the modern headpiece after partial clearing of the top layers of paint and saw-dust fill.

A view of the modern headpiece after partial clearing of the top layers of paint and saw-dust fill.

 

Photograph by Kate Brugioni.

A section through the top of the modern headpiece construction, showing acrylic filler (white), wood glue and wood-flour (dark brown), wood glue and saw-dust (pink and light brown), and paint (orange and blue).

After establishing the stratigraphy and working through a few (hard!) layers with a scalpel, I established the boundary between ancient and modern. Many of the joints were still inaccessible, however, and to reverse them we reached for a saw.

Face and lapet stratigraphy diagram_w KEY

 

Kate using a coping saw to free the ancient from the modern wood.

Kate using a coping saw to free the ancient from the modern wood.

 

Detail of proper-left shoulder of coffin. As the modern (lighter) wood is being sliced away, the ancient surface is revealed.

Detail of proper-left shoulder of coffin. As the modern (lighter) wood is being sliced away, the ancient surface is revealed.

 

Detail of proper-right shoulder of coffin. By slightly off-setting the kerf (width of saw cut) from the ancient wood, the bulk of the modern (lighter) wood can be removed.

Detail of proper-right shoulder of coffin. By slightly off-setting the kerf (width of saw cut) from the ancient wood, the bulk of the modern (lighter) wood can be removed.

We first tried a coping saw, and then we graduated to a shiny, new Japanese double-blade hand saw. Although versatile enough for most applications, it was difficult to maneuver into tight spaces. Furthermore, using the hand saws was very time consuming.

Renée Stein maneuvering the

Renée Stein maneuvering the hand saw

Finally, after carefully excavating all of the tracts to be cut, we unveiled the one tool to rule them all… the Fein Multitasker FMM 250Q, a variable speed tool for sanding, scraping and cutting. 

IMG_0964_1

Photograph by Kate Brugioni.

Tracts cut around the ancient material, as viewed from the proper-right side of the coffin lid.

 Tune in next time to see our continued progress with the MCCM Coffin Lid!

Conservation student Kate Brugioni blows the lid off the restoration process for ancient Egyptian artifacts

Editor’s note: This fall some changes are coming to the HMNS Hall of Ancient Egypt. Some artifacts will leave and others are coming in on new loans. As we prepare for this, NYU third-year art conservation student Kate Brugioni will take us through the restoration process for ancient artifacts. 

When you walk around the Hall of Ancient Egypt, you see some pretty old stuff — actually some really old stuff. We’re talking thousands of years here, folks. But have you ever wondered how everything stays in top condition? 

Well that’s my job (rather, summer internship, but it will be my job soon)!

I’m Kate Brugioni, rising third-year art conservation student at the Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts at NYU. My education combines a study of art history, archaeology, museology and science. After completing this rigorous four-year program, I will graduate with a Master’s degree in Art History and an Advanced Certificate in Conservation.

As a student with a particular interest in painted wood surfaces, I am excited to be treating the Carlos Museum‘s polychrome-wood coffin lid, dated to the 22nd–24th dynasties of Ancient Egypt (943–720 BCE). More than 500 hours of documentation, study, and treatment will be completed over the course of this project, and I would like to share something of the sense of excitement and discovery this opportunity has brought me.

Photograph by Ashley Jehle.

Kate Brugioni and Renée Stein examining the reverse side of the coffin lid.

One of the most striking features of this anthropoid coffin lid is the ancient wood, largely left uncovered to showcase its fine texture; the painted wsh (“broad”) collar; and offertory inscription down the center. Of special interest are the features original to the coffin construction, such as dowels, mortise and tenon structures, an ochre-colored preparation layer and painted decoration. Over the course of treatment, these will be carefully documented, cleaned and stabilized.

Although the arid Egyptian climate preserved much of the wood substrate, diffuse fungal deterioration, abrasion, and flaking has affected the structure and appearance of the coffin lid. Additionally, a number of invasive “restoration” campaigns has damaged the ancient surface and structure.

The important second step of this project will be to locate and characterize these restoration materials, and deciding how they could be best reversed, where appropriate

Photo by Kate Brugioni.

Ancient Egyptian Coffin Lid (obverse). 22nd-24th Dynasty (MCCM.2011.01). Before treatment.


Photo by Kate Brugioni.

Ancient Egyptian Coffin Lid (reverse). 22nd-24th Dynasty (MCCM.2011.01). Before treatment.

Thank you for reading, and please stay tuned to this blog for up-to-date information about our findings over the course of treatment.

Oh, and one more thing! I would like to thank the Houston Museum of Natural Science for so generously supporting my summer internship at the Parsons Conservation Laboratory at the Michael C. Carlos Museum at Emory University, where I am preparing an ancient Egyptian coffin lid for long-term loan to the Hall of Ancient Egypt at HMNS.

We’d like to introduce you to the four new species of African house bats

Editor’s note: This blog post is a summation of “New Species of Scotophilus (Chiroptera: Vespertiliondae) from Sub-Saharan Africa,” written by HMNS Curator of Vertebrate Zoology Daniel M. Brooks and John W. Bickham, and published as a monograph in the Occasional Papers of the Museum at Texas Tech University.

Sub-Saharan Africa is a hotbed of biological diversity. A seemingly endless stream of new species has been discovered from different locales every year for centuries. The idea of this great biodiversity is widely accepted and, in fact, celebrated. But advances in genomic sequencing and morphology and an increased ability to obtain reliable specimens while recording their location shows that we’ve really just hit the tip of the iceberg. Many individual clades (or groups) of species should actually be distinguished further from each other as unique species themselves.

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Distribution of the four new species in Africa

The conservation question

Hold on a second here. Why is this important? What kind of difference could it make if there are 15 or 19 or 30 species of house bats in the world?

Glad you asked! Having an accurate taxonomy (naming and classification system) guides conservation efforts, while incomplete records impede these same efforts. Look at it this way: if you don’t know that a species exists, how can you protect it? In our modern era, we’re seeing rapid climate change and urbanization, which puts habitats under stresses to which species cannot quickly adapt. Therefore, having complete records allows us to make more meaningful conservation efforts because we have a better picture of what we’re trying to conserve. Having an accurate taxonomy also helps us to learn about biogeography, evolution, biodiversity and biology in general.

Now on to the bats!

As of 2005, there were 15 species of Scotophilus (house bats) documented. These were distributed between Indonesia, mainland Asia, Madagascar, Reunion Island and mainland Africa. However, these 15 species do not accurately reflect our current knowledge of Scotophilus biodiversity.

A 2009 study by Robert G. Trujillo sequenced cytochrome-b (part of an organism’s DNA) in Scotoplilus. Cytochrome-b is found in mitochondrial DNA, which is the genetic material in mitochondria (the “energy factory” of cells, if you will). These sequences are very useful in determining species differentiation.

With this information, Trujillo identified four distinct clades (branches on a species family tree). These include clades 8, 9, 11 and 12. Brooks and Bickham examined specimens from each of these lineages to see if there were enough physical differences between the organisms to further classify them as distinct species.

The clades and species of Scotophilus studied for the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene by Trujillo et al. (2009). The new species described in this  paper are circled.

The clades and species of Scotophilus studied for the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene by Trujillo et al. (2009). The new species described in this paper are circled.

Brooks and Bickham used skull and body measurements to compare specimens of each lineage with specimens representing the appropriate nominate — “textbook specimens” — of a given species).

Basically, they got very specific: measuring specimens from one predetermined area, and compared them to the nominate “textbook specimens” to see what physical differences there may or may not be.

When they compared the specimens, we saw that the genetic differences between the clades matched up with physical differences, which is why I’m proud to introduce to you four new species of African house bats (Scotophilus)!

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Study skin of Scotophilus andrewreborii holotype

 

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Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus andrewreborii holotype

Scotophilus andrewreborii
Andrew Rebori’s House Bat

It is our honor to name this species for Andrew N. Rebori (1948–2011). Rebori unknowingly touched lives and inspired many individuals, including many museum professionals. He always maintained a keen interest in animals, especially bats, which exemplified his spirit and attitude toward life: “Take flight every new day!”

Type locality: Kenya: Rift Valley Province, Nakuru District, 12 km S, 4 km E Nakuru (0º24′S, 36º07′E).

Diagnosis: Scotophilus andrewreborii is distinguished from S. dinganii from Natal by a combination of external and craniodental features. S. andrewreborii averages slightly larger in body size for most characters. Additionally the dorsal pelage in S. andrewreborii is more reddish than the browner dorsal fur of S. dinganii, and the ventral pelage in S. andrewreborii is orange versus a much darker grey in S. dinganii.

Cranial measurements in S. andrewreborii are smaller, with non-overlapping measurements for braincase breadth for males, and shorter mean skull length (18.9 in S. andrewreborii vs. 19.6 mm for S. dinganii), narrower zygomatic, shorter braincase height, narrower interorbital width (4.4 vs. 4.8 mm), decreased breadth across upper molars, and decreased breadth across upper canines for females.

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Study skin of Scotophilus livingstonii holotype

 

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus livingstonii holotype.

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus livingstonii
holotype

Scotophilus livingstonii
Livingstone’s House Bat

It is our honor to name this species for the late David Livingstone (1813–1873). At a time when most of Africa was barely known compared to today, Livingstone, a young Scot of humble means, explored central Africa. Between 1841 and his death in 1873, Livingstone made several expeditions into the interior of the continent, mapping uncharted lands and searching for navigable waterways.

Type locality: Kenya: Western Province, Kakamega District, Ikuywa River Bridge, 6.5 km S, 19 km E Kakamega (0º13′N, 34º55′E).

Diagnosis: Scotophilus livingstonii is distinguished from S. dinganii from Natal by a combination of external and craniodental features. S. livingstonii averages larger overall in body size. Additionally the dorsal pelage in S. livingstonii is more reddish-mahogany than the browner dorsal fur of S. dinganii, and the ventral abdominal pelage in S. livingstonii is light buff vs. a much darker grey in S. dinganii.

Scotophilus livingstonii is also distinguished from S. dinganii from Natal by cranio-dental measurements. Male S. livingstonii have a shorter mean skull length, and females have a longer mean mandibular length.

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Study skin of Scotophilus ejetai holotype

 

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus ejetai holotype.

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus ejetai holotype

Scotophilus ejetai
Ejeta’s House Bat

This species is named in honor of Dr. Gebisa Ejeta, Distinguished Professor of Plant Breeding & Genetics and International Agriculture at Purdue University. He was born and raised in the village of Wollonkomi in west-central Ethiopia. Dr. Ejeta is a plant breeder and geneticist who received the 2009 World Food Prize for his research and development of improved sorghum hybrids resistant to drought and Striga weed. The results of his work have dramatically enhanced the food supply of hundreds of millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa.

Type locality: Ethiopia: Orimaya Region, Dogy River Bridge (8º21’43″N, 35º53’02″E). Collected at 1390 m above sea level.

Diagnosis: Scotophilus ejetai is distinguished from S. dinganii from Natal by a combination of external and craniodental features. S. ejetai averages smaller overall in body size, with females presenting non-overlapping forearm length.  Additionally the ventral pelage in S. ejetai has an orange hue, whereas the ventral fur is buff with a greyish abdomen in S. dinganii.

Cranial measurements in S. ejetai are smaller, with non-overlapping measurements for skull length, zygomatic breadth and braincase breadth for males, and zygomatic breadth and braincase breadth for females.

Study skin of Scotophilus trujilloi holotype.

Study skin of Scotophilus trujilloi holotype

 

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus trujilloi holotype.

Study cranium and mandible of Scotophilus trujilloi holotype

Scotophilus trujilloi
Trujillo’s House Bat

It is our honor to name this species for Dr. Robert Trujillo (b. 1975), whose ground-breaking doctoral dissertation on the molecular systematics of Scotophilus paved the way for the description of the four cryptic species described here. Dr. Trujillo’s dedication to science and environmental stewardship are reflected in his outstanding career in the US Forest Service.

Type locality: Kenya: Coastal Province, Kwale District, Moana Marine Station, 1 km S, 2 km E Ukunda (4º18′S, 39º35′E).

Diagnosis: Scotophilus trujilloi is distinguished from S. viridis from Mozambique Island by a combination of external and craniodental features. S. trujilloi averages larger in body size and shorter in forearm length, with females presenting non-overlapping head-body and forearm lengths. Additionally the dorsal pelage in S. trujilloi is mahogany, whereas the dorsal fur is brown in S. viridis. The ventral pelage in S. trujilloi is orange with a greyish abdomen, whereas the ventral fur is grayish-brown grizzled whitish abdominally in S. viridis.

Cranial measurements in S. trujilloi differ from S. viridis, with shorter mean braincase height in males; and females, as well as non-overlapping mandibular length in females. 

Preserving Egypt’s cultural past: A conversation about conservation with Dina Aboul Saad

Editor’s Note: Today’s post was written by Dina Aboul Saad, Director of Development at the American Research Center in Egypt.

ARCE Collage

Ancient Egyptian, Roman, Coptic and Islamic sites further our understanding of the rich cultural history of Egypt, but there’s much more to Egypt than digging up artifacts. Have you ever thought about what happens to the sites and objects once they are uncovered? And why do we endeavor to preserve Egypt’s cultural past?

The American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) answers these questions through the most extensive program of conservation and training in Egypt today. In recent years the American Research Center in Egypt (ARCE) has conducted large-scale preservation and training activities at important archaeological sites throughout Egypt in collaboration with Egyptian colleagues and the Ministry of State for Antiquities.

On Nov. 7th at HMNS, you have an opportunity to see some of the iconic sites ARCE works to conserve and document.

fruitcake egypt

Working in Egypt since 1948, ARCE supports scholarly research in Egypt in a variety of areas including archaeology, training, site documentation and mapping, and conservation.

Brian Eno, the British rock musician and avant-garde artist, once remarked, “We are convinced by things that show internal complexity; [things] that show the traces of an interesting evolution. That is what makes old buildings interesting. Humans have a taste for things that not only show that they have been through a process of evolution, but which also show they are still part of one. They are not dead yet.”

We feel disconnected when the opportunity to involve ourselves with cultural history, even from a distance, is taken away.

Don’t miss Dina’s presentation, where she will give an overview of ARCE’s archaeological projects and the impact these projects have in Egypt. This event is co-sponsored by the Egyptian American Society of Houston here at HMNS on Thurs., Nov. 7 at 6:30 p.m. For advance tickets, call 713-639-4629 or get them online.