What in the World is THAT!!??

We often receive pictures that look completely and totally alien and WEIRD to most people, but like good little Entomologists, we know exactly what they are! The picture sent in to us most recently from a gentleman in Deer Park is a two-for-one special!

Have you ever seen a very large green caterpillar with strange-looking white ovals protruding from it? Well, it’s not just one insect, it’s two.

The picture clearly shows a large green caterpillar with a horn on it’s rear. It’s a little blurry, but it’s clearly a type of hornworm. Hornworms are the larvae of sphinx moths. Sphinx moth caterpillars are characterized by a horn-like appendage on their last segment, giving rise to the common name. This is more than likely a tomato or tobacco hornworm. These caterpillars can devastate plants in the solanaceae family (tomatoes, tobacco, potatoes, peppers, etc.), so they are considered a major agricultural pest.  Fortunately for farmers these two species are often attacked by a little monster which lies inside those weird white protrusions.


Braconid wasps are tiny parasitic wasps of which there are over 50,000 species. These wasps are our friends. They do not sting, but they parasitize some of our most damaging pests like caterpillars, aphids, and  beetle larvae.  They are mostly internal parasites and they can parasitize most any developmental stage of insects. There are even ones minute enough to lay eggs inside itty bitty eggs of insects, like aphids. Braconid wasps are very species-specific. The species of wasp that commonly attacks tomato and tobacco hornworms is called Cotesia congregatus.

The female lays her eggs just under the skin of  the caterpillar and within days the larvae hatch and start to eat the caterpillar from the inside. After about a week the larvae of the wasp drill a hole in the host’s skin and form a silken white cocoon to pupate in. The cocoons are what you see protruding from the skin. If the caterpillar is still alive at this point, they don’t have much longer. The adult wasps later emerge and fly off to mate and parasitize another caterpillar.

As gruesome as this sounds, it’s all part of the delicate balance of nature. For every organism that exists, many others exist to keep their populations in check. This is the foundation of biological control. Biological control is a method that uses an insect’s natural predators and parasites against them. Way better than chemicals!

So there you have it, another mystery solved! If you have a tricky bug you’d like identified, or even just a question that’s been bugging you, send an e-mail to blogadmin@hmns.org. We’ll take our best crack at it and feature your question or picture in our blog. Until next time, happy bug watching!

Spring Plant Sale!! This Saturday, 4/9

The Cockrell Butterfly Center is having its Spring Plant Sale Saturday, April 9, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. on the 7th level of the parking garage at the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

Make sure to get there early as plants do sell out! This post is by Soni, one of our Butterfly Center horticulturalists.

HMNS Fall Plant Sale
See more photos from the Spring Plant Sale on Flickr.

We have nectar plants and host plants to attract butterflies to your garden. This year, we have been working on propagating more native plants. This includes:

Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta)
Giant Coneflower (Rudbeckia maxima)
Mexican Blanket (Gaillardia pulchella)
American Basket Flower (Centaurea Americana
Creeping Spot Flower (Acmella oppositifolia)
Maypop Passion Vine (Passiflora incarnata)
And others!

Tithonia
See more photos from the Spring Plant Sale on Flickr.

Some of you are probably seasoned butterfly gardeners, but some may be asking yourselves:

How do you garden for butterflies?

The answer is really simple. There are two types of plants that you need to have for a successful butterfly garden: nectar and host plants. Nectar plants have blooms that produce a sugary liquid that butterflies need to consume in order to survive. Some examples of these plants are Porter Weed, Echinacea (Purple Cone Flower), Zinnias, Rudbeckia (Brown and Black-eyed Susans), Monarda (Bee Balm), Lantana, Salvias, Eupatorium (Mistflower), Cuphea, Buddleia, and Tithonia (Mexican Sunflower) among many others.

Gaillardia
See more photos from the Spring Plant Sale on Flickr.

The other type of plants that you need are host plants. Some examples of these are: Asclepias (Milkweed), Passionvine, Citrus, Rue, Fennel, Aristolochia (Pipevine), and Cassias. These are plants that the female butterflies lay eggs on. Certain species of butterflies will only lay their eggs on specific plants such as the Monarch, which only lays eggs on Milkweed. If you see caterpillars on these plants, that is a good thing! Those caterpillars are baby butterflies! The host plant is their food source, which means that the caterpillar eats the leaves. If you want a garden to attract butterflies, but don’t want insects eating away at the foliage, just use nectar plants.

Create a Local Butterfly Habitat!

A lot of these plants are native to Texas and the good thing about this sale is that the Cockrell Butterfly Center specifically chooses plants that will attract the native butterflies and will perform well in the Houston area. If you are not sure what to do or have any questions about gardening for butterflies, our experts will be at the sale to answer them. Come early, the plants go fast!

Out in the garden

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For the past few weeks, the Cockrell Butterfly Center Staff and Dedicated Greenhouse volunteers have been busy enhancing the exterior Butterfly Demonstration Garden. The garden is located outside the Main Hall exit near the Cockrell Butterfly Center’s entrance doors. This garden comes complete with a stone path, an arch for a climbing Passionflower vine and lots of beautiful red, blue, yellow and white blooming nectar sources.  We also make available the host plants for the caterpillars to feed on. Permanently affixed to the center of the garden, sits a framed pictorial directory of host plants and nectar plants. We are in the process of updating the poster with some new species which we feel perform well for the garden and its all important visitors the delightful, graceful, jewels with wings.  If you want to see what a specimen plant that is listed on our Butterfly Gardening brochure looks like, this demonstration garden is a great place to start.

While we worked in the garden, we were visited by Phoebis sennae, Sulphur butterflies. These are the yellow ones quite often seen in our great city. A Papilio cresphontes, Giant Swallowtail, spent about 20 minutes laying eggs on the Wafer ash tree. Other visitors were the Battus polydamas, also called the” Goldrim,” happily feasting upon the Bauhinia mexicana blooms.

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We were visited by quite a few squirrels busily scampering about up and down the tree trunks.  A female red breasted robin was busy teaching her young ones how to retrieve the earth worms erupting from the fresh earth as we turned it over with our shovels. Our time spent in the garden was a nature nurturing delight.

Just beyond the roped fence, sits a paved patio with picnic tables shaded by large cloth umbrellas available for visitors to enjoy their lunch.  Not a day goes by that you don’t see native species of butterflies fluttering about while you munch on your lunch. Next time you are at the museum, take time to view this garden and see what plants you might want to place in your own garden.  Feel free to pick up a free Butterfly Gardening Brochure available on the plant cart outside of the Collector’s gift shop.