100 Years – 100 Objects: Morpho cypris

The Houston Museum of Natural Science was founded in 1909 – meaning that the curators of the Houston Museum of Natural Science have been collecting and preserving natural and cultural treasures for a hundred years now. For this yearlong series, our current curators have chosen one hundred exceptional objects from the Museum’s immense storehouse of specimens and artifacts—one for each year of our history. Check back here frequently to learn more about this diverse selection of behind-the-scenes curiosities—we will post the image and description of a new object every few days.

This description is from Nancy, the museum’s director of the Cockrell Butterfly Center and curator of entomology. She’s chosen a selection of objects that represent the rarest and most interesting insects in the Museum’s collections,that we’ll be sharing here – and at 100.hmns.org- throughout the year.

Cypris Blue Morpho-4x6

Although not considered endangered, this Morpho species is relatively rare in collections. As it flies along river beds in its native rainforest habitat and sunlight hits its wings, the ethereal, iridescent blue of the male blazes like a flashing mirror. The females, much less commonly seen, occur in two color forms: one reflective blue, the other muted yellow, tan and brown. The caterpillars are covered with yellow and red hairs, and eat the leaves of trees in the legume family. Morpho cypris is found from Nicaragua to Ecuador.

Learn more about butterflies and their relatives in a visit to the new Brown Hall of Entomology, a part of the Cockrell Butterfly Center– a living, walk-through rainforest at the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

You can see more images of this fascinating artifact – as well as the others we’ve posted so far this year – in the 100 Objects section at 100.hmns.org

Plant Sale for Butterfly Lovers this Saturday, April 4 at HMNS!

duranta
 Duranta Plant
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Jayjayc

This Saturday, April 4, the Cockrell Butterfly Center will hold its highly anticipated spring plant sale, featuring a great selection of plants that are guaranteed to bring butterflies to your garden.  The sale will be held on the sundial plaza just outside the museum’s main entrance, beginning at 9 a.m. and ending at 1 p.m.  Come early to get the best selection – plants go fast! 

We feature both nectar plants (to attract a selection of adult butterflies) and several host plants (food plants for the baby butterflies, aka caterpillars).  Of course experienced butterfly gardeners know that you need both to attract the maximum number of butterflies.  But we can also recommend the best starter plant or plants for anyone just wanting to get their antennae wet for the first time…! 

Knowledgeable and enthusiastic horticulturalstaff and docents will be on hand to help you make your decisions.  This is the perfect time of year to get plants in the ground – and the butterflies are just beginning to show up en masse (eager to lay their eggs to start a new generation) – so get ready for them by coming to this sale!

A quick list of nectar plants includes (among others) – several species of salvia, verbena, cone flowers, duranta, lantana, porter weed, and many more.   Available host plants include Brazilian pipevine, Mexican milkweed, cassia, and citrus.   We also have a few “just for fun” plants – come and see!

The butterflies will thank you for it.

Beautiful Spring-time Butterflies!

Spring-time is almost here and the butterflies will soon be fluttering all around town.  I have actually seen a lot already, but we do live in Texas, so that’s not a surprise.  Since I work in an exotic butterfly house, I definitely have my favorite exotic butterflies, but I also have a few favorites that are here in Texas as well.  Many of you may be expecting me to write about the monarch, Danaus plexippus, but I thought I would write about some different, but still very common ones that we find around here in Houston.  If you are interested in monarchs, please check out Nancy’s blog - all about monarch migration.

Morning Butterfly
Creative Commons License photo credit: Joel Olives

The Gulf Fritillary, Agraulis vanillae, is a butterfly that frequents Houston quite often.  Its caterpillars feed off of every single part of the passion vine plant, which make them poisonous and nasty-tasting to predators. 

A couple of summers ago, I had tons of these caterpillars on my passion vine plant.  The caterpillars have large spines along their body with an underlying bold purple, orange, and black coloration, serving to warn predators of their danger!  I’m sure many of you have seen this bright orange and black butterfly fluttering around nectar plants such as Lantana, Zinnia, Coneflowers, Butterfly Bush, and many others. 

One of the most distinct characteristics of the Gulf Fritillary is the spectacular silvery, almost mirror looking, spots on the underside of the wings.  The males and females look very similar, but the black stripes on upper side of the female’s wings are thicker and more pronounced.  Although this butterfly is not here in the Butterfly Center very often, take advantage of its beauty outdoors right here in Houston.  

The goldrim butterfly, Battus polydamas, is a member of the swallowtail family (Papilionidae), but it does not have the typical tails that many of these butterflies have.  The name ‘gold rim’ comes from the golden-yellow crescent shaped markings on the upper edges of both the fore and hind wing.  Caterpillars of this species are gregarious (living together) in the early stages but become solitary when older.  The caterpillars are a dark reddish gray color with paired fleshy tubercles along the back of the body.  

I am very fond of these cute caterpillars and was fortunate enough to take this adorable picture in our butterfly garden right outside of the museum.  Adults are mainly associated with disturbed areas of the forest and can be seen visiting gardens throughout the city.  They are nectar feeders and especially like Lantana.  Like many swallowtails, this butterfly flutters constantly while feeding instead of stopping to rest.  This butterfly is fairly common in Florida and South Texas and will at times stray to Kentucky and Missouri. 

Clouded Sulphur
Creative Commons License photo credit: tlindenbaum

Once spring-time hits, I seem to see this next butterfly all the time!  As a native of heavily populated areas such as parks, yards, gardens, and road edges, the cloudless sulphur, Phoebis sennae, can be seen almost anywhere along the gulf coastal states. It is characterized by its pure bright yellow to greenish-yellow wings. The males use strong rapid flight to search for a receptive female. The eggs are laid singly on leaves of Cassia,which the caterpillars happily consume, and hide underneath, to rest. The pupae are oddly shaped, compressed from side to side with a greatly distended “chest and belly”. They use a silken girdle to attach themselves to the leaf during pupation. These butterflies are harmless to plant life and are a welcome visitor to any garden.

One of the largest butterflies that I see around town is the Giant Swallowtail, Papilio cresphontesThis fantastic butterfly is native to large portions of North, Central, and South America. It very common in Houston and can be seen gracefully fluttering and sipping the sweet nectar of flowers such as Lantana, Azalea, and Honeysuckle.

Characterized by the striking diagonal yellow band across its forewing, and its long yellow-filled tails, this butterfly is a joy to see in one’s garden! The larvae feed strictly on citrus plants and are commonly called “orange dogs.” As a defense, they cleverly disguise themselves as bird droppings as they sit motionless during the day and feed at night. As with other swallowtails, these caterpillars’ posses a bright reddish orange, y-shaped gland called an osmeterium, which contains a mixture of highly noxious chemicals that smell like rancid butter. This gland helps to protect the caterpillar from small predators such as ants and spiders. The pupal stage remains inconspicuous, resembling a piece of tree bark.

These four butterflies are only a few of the wonderful butterflies that live in Houston.  If you are more interested in butterflies you should check out Butterflies of Houston & Southeast Texasby John and Gloria Tveten.  It’s a wonderful book and has amazing pictures.

Love Butterflies?
Bring them to your garden with scrumptious (to butterflies, anyway) host plants – available at our Spring Plant Sale April 4, 9 a.m. – 1 p.m. Stay tuned for more details!

The Incredible Journey of the Monarchs – on PBS

She Was Completely Transparent With Me
Creative Commons License photo credit: Randy Son Of Robert

What do you know about monarch butterflies?

A universal favorite, most people know that these showy orange and black butterflies fly south every year to spend the winter in Mexico. Many of you may have raised their black, yellow, and white caterpillars on Mexican milkweed as a class project or in your backyard.

But why do the adult butterflies migrate, and how do they get there and back? Who are the people and cultures they encounter as they traverse the continent from north to south each year? How did we learn about their migration, and what does it tell us about the natural world?

Migration
Creative Commons License photo credit: tlindenbaum

To answer these questions, and to see some amazing footage of millions of butterflies in flight and at their overwintering grounds, be sure to watch NOVA’s long-awaited special, “The Incredible Journey of the Monarchs.” It airs on PBS tomorrow night (Tuesday, January 27) at 7 p.m.

Inspired by Sue Halpern’s book, “Four Wings and a Prayer,” the filmmaker followed the butterflies in hot air balloons and high tech gliders, interviewing researchers and ordinary citizens in Canada, the USA, and Mexico to tell the story of these unusual butterflies and the unique phenomenon of their migration.

You can catch a quick preview of the show, learn about filmmaker Nick de Pencier, or see a list of monarch links and books at the NOVA website.

According to our friends in the monarch-watching business (see www.monarchwatch.org) this film is “the best program ever done on monarch butterflies.” Don’t miss it!

Again, it airs in Houston on PBS (Channel 8) on Tuesday, January 27 at 7 p.m.