T. rex vs. Prey: Imagining battles between ancient gladiators

When I was super young, say around five or so, I remember playing in the bath tub with my plastic toys. Some were super heroes like He-Man or Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, others were monster trucks and die-cast matchbox cars by Mattel, but most were dinosaurs.

This might be TMI, this story about the kid in the bath tub with bubbles on his head, ramming plastic characters into one another and dreaming up their backstories, the bellows of challenge they traded, and the choreography of their battles, but I know there are other adult children out there with similar memories.

During this epoch in the evolution of me, I distinctly recall pitting Tyrannosaurus rex against Stegosaurus, which, as I’ve discovered in later life, was completely wrong, as was most of what I thought around five years old, but you know, who can blame a five-year-old for muddling up the fossil record?

T. rex is one of the most famous dinosaurs in history, easily identified by its massive, heavy skull, long steak-knife teeth, powerful back legs and tail, and ridiculous vestigial arms, but due to her status as dinosaur royalty, the length of her reign and her identity is as often confused by adults as it is by naive five-year-olds. The T. rex lived for two million years in the Late Cretaceous, never in the Jurassic, as her appearance in Jurassic Park might suggest, but we can forgive this fiction for its oversight. (After all, InGen, the engineering firm responsible for cloning extinct dinosaurs in the movie, infamously mismatched animals from different eras within the same park.) And she wasn’t the only two-legged carnivore.

stego allo

In a dramatic representation, Stegosaurus and Allosaurus duke it out in the Jurassic. Morian Hall.

In the time of Stegosaurus, between 155 and 150 million years ago (the real Jurassic), the apex predator was the Allosaurus. Smaller than the T. rex, but with more capable arms with three fingers ending in talons, this baddie no doubt picked battles with Stegosaurus, putting its life on the line for a meal. With its polygonal plates down its back, viciously spiked tail, flexible spine and toes that allowed it to rear up, Stegosaurus could give Allosaurus a true walloping.

DSC_1493

Allosaurus remains feature prominent eyebrow ridges and three-fingered hands with sharp claws.

Forget about jaws and claws. One solid hit from the bone spikes could deeply puncture the neck or torso of any shady Allosaurus looking for a bite, and its plates would protect its spine from being severed by teeth until it could land a blow. It isn’t difficult to imagine eyes gouged and jugulars perforated, many Allosauruses bleeding out after botched predatory encounters with Stegosaurus. There were certainly easier things for Allosaurus to eat, but few battles with other species could match the gladiatorial epicness of this match-up, at least not in this era.

DSC_1489

Even as an herbivore, Stegosaurus would have made a formidable opponent against Allosaurus in the Jurassic, using a spiked tail and bone plates along its spine as defenses.

Fast forward 90 million years to the Late Cretaceous, the reign of the “tyrant lizard.” Tyrannosaurs roamed North America and Asia, preying on a variety of other famous megafauna like Triceratops, Ankylosaurus, and duck-billed hadrosaurs including Edmontosaurus, Brachylophosaurus, and Parasaurolophus. There’s no way T. rex even knew Stegosaurus was a thing. More time passed between these two than between dinosaurs and Homo sapiens.

HMNS_Own_It_rexes

As the largest predator of the Late Cretaceous, the T. rex is one of the fossil record’s most iconic species.

Nor was the T. rex the only one of her kind; she was just the largest, hence the name, “king of tyrants.” Among her smaller contemporaries, Tarbosaurus, Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, and Gorgosaurus, she was the Queen B, big and bad, in spite of the competition. She had excellent vision, a sense of smell that could detect prey from miles away, and decent hearing, though high-pitched sounds would have been lost to her. Food wouldn’t have been difficult for the T. rex to find, but that food really, really didn’t want to be eaten.

DSC_1503

T. rex couldn’t have fought Stegosaurus, but it preyed upon Triceratops, another iconic species that lived in the same time period.

There’s no more famous match-up than Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops. With two long horns and a bony frill like a samurai helmet to guard its neck, as long as the trike met the T. rex head-on, there was no contest. But if Triceratops charged and missed the mark, the tyrant’s big jaws could take out its backbone in a single bite, neutralizing the threat of horns. Recent discoveries of casts of Triceratops‘s hide reveals nodules that might have housed quills, making even a bite to its back a dangerous one if T. rex ever got around the impenetrable helmet. You can imagine this battle yourself in the Morian Hall of Paleontology, where Lane the Triceratops takes a defensive position under an aggressor T. rex.

DSC_1500

T. rex preyed upon Denversaurus and its famous cousin, Ankylosaurus, but both would have made a difficult meal, protected by bony armor.

Against Ankylosaurus and its cousin Denversaurus, also on display in Morian Hall, tyrannosaurs likely had a more difficult time. Both Ankylosaurus and Denversaurus developed the adaptation of a wide, low body and armored plating, making access to its soft underbelly impossible for tyrannosaurs unless kicked onto its back, but Ankylosaurus had another advantage. The tip of its tail bore a mace-like club that, like Stegosaurus’s spiked tail, could maim the jaws of predators that didn’t pay enough heed. One swing from this heavy weapon could break open a T. rex‘s face, cripple its legs, or shatter its ribs, and with arms too small to defend itself, dodging seems the only tactic at her disposal against this tank of a creature. An encounter with an Ankylosaurus could mean either a meal or certain death, depending on the T. rex‘s experience hunting.

DSC_1501

Armor plating on the back of Denversaurus would have protected against a bite from the T. rex and other tyrannosaurs of the Late Cretaceous, but if flipped over, its soft underbelly would be exposed.

A more easy meal for any tyrannosaur would have been Edmontosaurus and other duck-billed dinosaurs. These hadrosaurs had few defenses. No armor plating, no spikes, no claws, no wings, no sharp teeth. But it’s possible they had a different advantage, though it’s tough to deduce through fossils alone. Hollow chambers in the skulls of many hadrosaurs suggest these creatures, like geese and other water fowl, had the power of sound at their disposal. A deafening bellow might have stopped a tyrannosaur in its tracks or sent it running in the other direction. T. rex isn’t known for its sensitive hearing, but as we all know, if the sound is loud enough, it can be excruciating. And T. rex had no fingers to put into her ears, nor could she reach them.

DSC_1497

Edmontosaurus, a duckbilled hadrosaur and cousin of Parasaurolophus, appears to have lacked natural defenses. However, the hollows in its skull suggest it could have protected itself with deafening bellows like giant geese.

Understanding these species as they once were, interacting with one another, is more than bath tub child’s play for paleontologists; it’s a career and a discipline. It’s in the Greek roots of the word “paleontology,” the study of being and beings in the ancient world. The study of what life on Earth might have looked like eons ago. The work of these scientists is more like philosophy than fiction, but building careful theories via the fossil record and considering every angle does require a measure of imagination.

DSC_1482

An artist’s representation depicts Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus rex in an age-old feud set in the lush swamps of the Late Cretaceous, an imagined scene deduced from evidence in the fossil record. Morian Hall.

I suppose, apart from the spikes and teeth and horns and claws and body armor and all the other things that make these terrible lizards seem like something out of science fiction, or monsters invented by a puppeteer, it’s the daydreaming paleontology requires that holds my attention. To understand their world, you must build it in your mind.

Top 10 Tokens of Affection from the Museum Store for Valentine’s Day!

Can’t think of the perfect gift for your Valentine? We got you covered with 10 gift ideas for your sweetheart.Untitled-1

# 10 — Kris Nations X And O Stud Earrings

 

# 9 — Kris Nations Heart And Arrow Stud Earrings

 

# 8 — Eddie Borgo C Z Pave Bicone Hinged Rose Gold Cuff

 

# 7 — Swallow Heart Lock Ruby Necklace

 

# 6 — Ananda Khalsa Pink Tourmaline Ring

 

# 5 — Rebecca Lankford Hugs And Kisses Diamond Necklace

# 4 — Brassthread Kiss My Heart Necklace

# 3 — Mawi London Crystal Heart Spike Earrings

 

# 2 — Mirta Tummino Pink Sapphire Clover Necklace

 

# 1 — Delphine Leymarie Amour Heartbeat Tiny Double Necklace

 

‘Tis The Season: Get 20% Off Select Designers from 12-4 at Today’s Holiday Trunk Show

Swipe and smile at the Museum store Trunk Shows, where we’re giving you exclusive access to unique designer jewelry at exclusive prices. Find original designs, sure to be the perfect gift — all at 20 percent off (plus member discounts).

Museum Store Holiday Trunk Show

Jewelry by Mirta Tummino

As a part of our Holiday Trunk Shows, this week we’re featuring designers Mirta Tummino and Sarah Stewart.

Houston favorite Mirta Tummino’s delicate wirework showcases colorful gemstones, showing us the meaning of elegance through her understated yet captivating designs. Sarah Stewart designs beautiful silk and wool scarves that are batiked and woven in Indonesian by master textile artists, with beautiful attention to detail.

Come See us in the Museum Store today for great deals on great gifts! 

And don’t forget to check out the Museum Store online for great gift ideas.  We’ve got everything for jewelry lovers, geeky connoisseurs, science loving kiddos and everyone in between. Order by December 16 to guarantee shipment by Christmas Day!

Museum Store Holiday Trunk Show

Jewelry by Mirta Tummino

Museum store Holiday Trunk Show

Scarf by Sarah Stewart

Museum Store Holiday Trunk Show

Jewelry by Mirta Tummino

Museum Store Holiday Trunk Show

Scarf by Sarah Stewart

 

 

 

Mark Your Calendars for these events happening this week (12/8-12/14) at HMNS

R_rating_WBust out your planners, calendars, and PDAs (if you are throwback like that), it’s time to mark your calendars for the HMNS events of this week!

Film Screening & Lecture
Dinosaur 13
Tuesday, December 9
6:00 p.m.

Join paleontologists Peter Larson and Dr. Robert T. Bakker for a candid discussion on the discovery of Sue—the largest, most complete T. rex ever found—and the ensuing battles that Larson and his crew faced after their monumental find. This talk will be followed by a screening of Dinosaur 13—the new film from Lionsgate and CNN Films that tells this riveting story, and features Larson and Bakker. Click here for more info.

Opening of Special Exhibition: Crystals of India at HMNS Sugar Land
Friday, December 12
Discover the Crystals of India at HMNS at Sugar Land. Originating from India’s Deccan Plateau, a large geologic formation that comprises most of the southern part of the country, the exhibition features a never-before-seen collection of almost 50 of the most beautiful and most perfectly formed natural mineral crystals ever found anywhere in the world.
For this exclusive engagement, the temporary exhibition hall at the HMNS at Sugar Land will be transformed into a jewel box that will highlight these exquisite mineral masterpieces in a setting more befitting an installation of the crown jewels—made complete with dramatic lighting and custom display cases.

Crystals of India is organized by the Houston Museum of Natural Science. Local support is provided by the City of Sugar Land, Frost Bank, and Sudha Chittaluru, M.D (Internal Medicine) – First Colony Primary Care.

Frozen
Saturday, December 13 & Sunday, December 14
10:00 a.m. & 4:00 p.m.
Fearless optimist Anna sets off on an epic journey-teaming up with rugged mountain man Kristoff and his loyal reindeer Sven-to find her sister Elsa, whose icy powers have trapped the kingdom of Arendelle in eternal winter. Encountering Everest-like conditions, mystical trolls and a hilarious snowman named Olaf, Anna and Kristoff battle the elements in a race to save the kingdom. Arts and crafts will follow this showing of the movie. Costumes are encouraged! Click here to purchase tickets.

Holiday Trunk Show – Mirta Tummino and Sarah Stewart
Saturday, December 13
12:00 p.m. – 4:00 p.m.
Two Houston designers are teaming for this special trunk show. Mirta Tummino’s delicate wirework showcases colorful gemstones. Sarah Stewart designs beautiful silk and wool scarves that are batiked and woven in Indonesian by master textile artists.

Geminid Meteor Shower
George Observatory
Saturday, December 13
Open until Midnight
Enjoy the annual Geminid Meteor Shower at the George Observatory. Not rising until past midnight, the Moon will be favorable this year. The peak of the shower will be 9:00 p.m. to midnight. Dress warmly and bring lawn chairs. Telescope viewing will be open until 10:00 p.m. Cloudy skies will prevent viewing of meteors.