Educator How-To: How to Make Your Own Pet Squid

The days just after Thanksgiving are always busy at the Museum. There are flurries of children on field trips, shoppers looking for that unusual and prefect gift and, my favorite, the annual installation of the holiday trees in the grand hall. The trees, which are decorated by local area non-profits, celebrate a variety of themes and causes and are not to be missed. My particular favorite each year is the tree decorated by the Houston Conchology Society. My department also gets to decorate a tree and it is always an ode to science. This year’s theme: Cephalopod Christmas. How can you go wrong there?

We know you will be out to visit the trees this year, and we assumed that you would want a cephalopod for yourself so I whipped up this little tutorial for your very own pet squid.  He’s adorable. He’s a cephalopod. Most importantly, he doesn’t have to be fed, walked* or cleaned up after. 

(*You might look really awkward trying to take your cephalopod for a walk.)

Ed How To - Squid 1

Materials:

1 Paper towel tube
1 Toilet paper tube
Paint – color of your choice
Paint brush
Scissors
String, yarn or thin ribbon – 2 to 3 feet.
Tape
Straw
Glue
Black permanent marker
Stapler

Procedure:

  1. Color your tubes with the paint of your choice. (Don’t clean up the paint quite yet. You’ll need it again in a minute.)
    Ed How To - Squid 2
  2. Set the tubes aside and let them dry.
  3. Pinch one end of the toilet paper tube shut.
    Ed How To - Squid 3
  4. Use scissors to cut a 45 degree angle off each side of the tube so you now have two triangle pieces and a pointy tube.
    Ed How To - Squid 4
  5. Use a stapler to keep the tube flat. I aligned my staple with the length of the tube so as to not get in the way of the next step.
    Ed How To - Squid 5
  6. Use the scissors to cut 8 legs from the paper towel tubes. The legs should go up the tube about 2/3 of the way.
  7. Use the rest of the paint to color the pieces you cut off – both sides and the inside of the legs you just cut. The legs may get a little floppy when they are wet with paint, but don’t worry – they’ll firm up when dry. If you have some weird delaminated bits, you can always add a little bit of glue.
    Ed How To - Squid 6
  8. Once everything is dry, cut one of the triangle pieces down the fold so you have two pieces. Cut the other triangle piece into two feeding tentacle pads.
    Ed How To - Squid 7
  9. You are going to use the halved triangle pieces to make the fins of your squid. Apply a little bit of glue to the hypotenuse of the two triangles (opposite the 90 degree angle) and slide them in between the two pointy bits of the toilet paper tube – one on each side.  The 90 degree angle should be the part sticking out and making the fin.
    Ed How To - Squid 8Ed How To - Squid 9
  10. Now grab the paper towel tube. Use the scissors to shape the legs as you see fit. I like mine a little bit more realistic but, really, you can leave them as is.
  11. If you so choose, you can also curl or shape the legs for more realistic appearance. For mine, I did this by rolling the legs over a round marker – switching from the inside of the leg to the outside of the leg every so often.
  12. Now, glue the feeding tentacles to the string. You can also staple or tape them on as you see fit. Go crazy.
    Ed How To - Squid 10
  13. Tie the middle of the string into a small knot. This will give you a little bit more material when you attach the feeding tentacles.
    Ed How To - Squid 11
  14. Holding onto the knot, drop the feeding tentacles down through the uncut end of the paper towel tube.
    Ed How To - Squid 12
  15. Staple, glue or tape the end of the knot to the edge of the paper towel tube to secure it in place.
    Ed How To - Squid 13
  16. Cut a 2 ½” to 3” slit in the uncut end of the paper towel tube. This will allow you to overlap these edges and fit the “legs” into the “head”.
    Ed How To - Squid 14
  17. Now let’s make a siphon. Cut a straw slightly longer than your slit. Let’s say 3 ¼” just for fun.
  18. Flatten the straw a bit and then attach the straw to one of the edges of the slit you just made.
    Ed How To - Squid 15
  19. Curl the side of the slit without the straw behind the side of the slit with the straw. Then, fit the “legs” into the “head.  Push it all the way in.
    Ed How To - Squid 16
  20. Once you know it fits, take the “legs” out, put a little glue on the top edge and fit it back into the “head”.
    Ed How To - Squid 17Ed How To - Squid 18
  21. Last step! We need to add some eyes! Using your black permanent marker, make two dime sized circles on your guy on the “leg” piece between the “head” and the legs.  They should line up approximately with your fins.
    Ed How To - Squid 19
  22. Done! Enjoy your pet squid and take him on lots of walks to the park.  Squid love going on walks. Here’s the final product.I have named him Maurice.
    Ed How To - Squid 1

 

Educator How-to: Tectonic Chocolate Bars

The earth is vast and its surface seems huge. However, the earth’s crust only makes up 1% of the earth’s mass — subsequent layers (the mantle and the core) make up the other 99%.

So, why do we care about the earth’s crust (besides the fact that we live there)? It consists of tectonic plates that move around, and where they hit, we get nature’s most impressive formations — Earthquakes and Volcanoes. Because the crust is so vast, it is hard to see the minor changes that occur daily. We tend to notice the big changes like mountains and effects from earthquakes.

In Houston, we don’t get to see either of those things! Luckily, the Houston Museum of Natural Science has Nature Unleashed: Inside Natural Disasters on exhibit right now. In Nature Unleashed you can see how the earth’s tectonic plates shift and learn about the earthquakes that can result, build your own volcano and watch as it explodes molten rock along the mountain side. You can even experience the inside of a tornado, and see some of the aftermath found in several cities.

Nature Unleashed: Inside natural DisastersIf you can’t make it to the museum, you can always show the effects of tension, compression and shifting on the earth’s crust using a simple chocolate bar!

Materials

  • Snack-sized chocolate bars (Milky Way and Snickers work best because of the caramel)
  • Wax paper or plates to place candy on while working

Procedure

  1. Tell the students that the earth’s surface is constantly changing. The crust is formed by tectonic plates which float on the plastic layer of the mantle called the asthenosphere. Where these plates interact, we notice changes on the earth’s crust. The chocolate on this candy bar is going to mimic some of those changes. This time I used Milky Way.

Structure of the Earth

  1. Have the students use their fingernail to make some cracks in the “crust” near the center of the candy bar. Ask them what they notice about the cracks in the crust?

Science Education

  1. Next, demonstrate tension by pulling the candy bar apart slowly. Notice how the crust shifts on top of the caramel layer. The caramel is the exposed upper mantle also known as the asthenosphere. It is this layer that allows the tectonic plates to move around. Sometimes this tension between plates can form basins or underwater ocean trenches.

Science Education

  1. The students should then place their chocolate bar back together gently. To demonstrate another way the earth’s crust moves, ask the students to move one half of the candy bar forward and pull the other half backwards. This is an example of a strike-slip fault. Notice how the chocolate changes at the fault line. This mimics the bending, twisting and pulling of the rocks that can occur at a fault.

Science Education

  1. Lastly, ask the students to push the two ends of the candy bar together. Notice how some of the chocolate pushes up and some even slides on top of another piece, showing how mountains can be created on the earth’s crust.

Science Education

  1. Now that you’ve seen what the earth’s crust can do, feel free to allow your students to eat their new landform creations! 

And don’t forget to come check out Nature Unleashed: Inside Natural Disasters showing now through September 14!

Educator How-To: Be your own knight in shining armor with homemade chain maille

When people think of knights, they generally think of armor, too. The plate armor most associated with knights was actually a fairly recent invention. Armor started as quilted shirts and thick leather pieces to cover arms and legs (if you were fortunate enough to afford it!).

Chain maille was a pretty fantastic innovation for the time, but it had its drawbacks, too. It was heavy and cumbersome and only as strong as each individual link. Because the links were made of steel or iron, they rusted quite readily, and those rusty links were the proverbial “chinks in the armor.” They were points of weakness that might allow a sword point or arrow to penetrate. 

The job of armor maintenance was given to young boys that might otherwise be underfoot. To start, the armor was placed in a barrel of sand and sealed up. The boys would then roll the barrels back and forth across the yard and the sand would scour the blood and sweat and rust off the links. Even a well-maintained chain maille shirt would need repairs quite often and the color on even the best of days would be a dull dark gray.

Further innovations led to the plate armor that we know today, but even then, it wasn’t always so shining. Here is a suit of armor that belonged to Henry VIII. 

Youth Ed Armor 2Youth Ed Armor 1 

 

Beautiful? Yes. Well-crafted? Yes. Shining? Not so much.

Don’t be fooled into thinking that body armor like this was a strictly European invention.  Most cultures that engage in warfare have some sort of armor to counteract the weapons. Some of the armor is ceremonial, but more often than not, it is clever and particular to the local environment. 

The Maya and Aztec, for example, wore knee-length jackets of tightly-woven quilted cotton called ichcahuipilli. The jackets were soaked in salt water and then the water was allowed to evaporate. The salt left behind would crystalize between the quilted portions of the jacket, creating small, thick, sturdy plates of protection which were effective against arrows, atlatl darts, obsidian swords and batons.

Youth Ed Armor 3

Youth Ed Armor 4

 

They didn’t have cotton in Micronesia, so on the islands of Kiribati, they used what they did have: coconuts. Helmets, leg coverings, shirts and chest protection were made from tightly-woven coconut fibers as protection against another natural resource: sharks (or more accurately, shark teeth). The teeth of the sharks were drilled in the roots and then attached to the base with bits from the veins of the coconut leaf or human hair. The shark-tooth swords were intended to disembowel an enemy or open a major artery so he would bleed out. Yikes!

Want in on all this exciting armor action? You’ve got two options!

Option 1: Bring your crew down to see Magna Carta before it leaves on August 17th.  You have three short weeks! If you want to bring a school group or day care, be sure to contact fieldtrips@hmns.org to get the school rate. You will also want to consider coming on a Friday mornings at around 11.

Youth Ed Armor 6

Option 2: Can’t make it to us? Then try your hand at making your own armor. Sort of.  Here’s a pretty easy chain maille bracelet you can make at home. It won’t offer you much protection but it will allow you to practice your technique before trying something a little more complicated.

Materials:

-Jump rings or chain maille rings (The bigger they are, the less work for you.)
-The clasp of your choice or a piece of leather or ribbon to tie the bracelet ends together
-2 pairs of jewelers pliers (or needle-nosed pliers if you are in a pinch)
-A tape measure or piece of paper to measure your wrist

Procedure:

  1. Measure how long you want your bracelet to be using a tape measure (or even a piece of paper). The standard size for women is about 7 inches and the standard size for men is about 8.
  2. Open several of your jump rings. To open them, you DON’T want to pull them apart.  Instead you want to twist them open. If the individual rings start off as an “O” shape, you don’t want to make them into a wide-mouthed “C”. Instead, you want to slide the ends away from each other, one towards you and one away from you. Because of the way the rings are made, they naturally take that shape, so that should help you get started. If your rings lay flat when opened (rather than in a twisty shape), you will need to try again! Once you have a pile of open rings, things get a little trickier. You can keep up though. I believe in you.

    Youth Ed Armor 7

  3. The next step is to put four closed rings on an open ring and then slide the open ring back into the closed position. Then repeat this step over and over. You will need probably 10 of these 4-in-1 sets for a 7-inch bracelet.

    Youth Ed Armor 8Youth Ed Armor 9

  4. Once you have the 4-in-1 sets made, you will need to use your pliers to separate out two rings from the four. The set should hang from your pliers as two rings, with one ring in the middle and two more rings at the bottom. You are then going to feed an open ring through the top two rings. Shift your pliers around so that you are now holding onto that open ring.

    Youth Ed Armor 10Youth Ed Armor 11

  5. Using your other set of pliers, pick up two rings on another 4-in-1 set. Loop those two rings through the open ring (effectively creating a new 4-in-1 set) and then close the open ring. You should have created a small chain at this point. Great job!

    Youth Ed Armor 12

  6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until you have 4 or 5 small chains. I am doing 4, but I have pretty small wrists.

    Youth Ed Armor 13

  7. Getting close to being done! You will need to link these small chains in exactly the same way you did the sets. Take two rings from the top of one small chain and put them on an open ring with two rings from the top of another small chain.
  8. Now, repeat step seven with your longer chains!
  9. Finish up by adding a single jump ring to each end. This will let you tie the two ends together, or you can add a clasp to that last ring before you close it up. You’re done!

    Youth Ed Armor 14

It’s as easy as A-B-C: Five reasons to book a back-to-school field trip this fall

Field Treip memeThe beginning of the school year is lurking just around the corner …

… which we love here at HMNS, where we are even more passionate about education than we are about dinosaur poop (ahem, coprolites). Our venues are chock-full of fun, hands-on exhibits, films and activities that introduce students to the world beyond their classroom.

Field trips allow students to own their education, and to be an active participant in their learning — which is why visiting HMNS this fall is a fantastic way to kick off the school year. Rather than waiting until April and May, give students an early opportunity to embrace HMNS as a part of their educational path. Give them the chance to OWN IT.

Not convinced? Here are five great reasons to pay us a visit this fall.

1. GET THE VIP TREATMENT: You’re a star (teacher), so we’ll treat you like one!

We know that a fall field trip can be a bit intimidating. You don’t know your students, the demands of the school year are looming in front of you, and you’re still waiting on your supply order to be filled. Planning a field trip on top of everything else can be daunting. Don’t worry — we’re here to help.

Our field trip coordinators have all been in the classroom, are familiar with current TEKS, and understand the demands of a full curriculum. They are also at your disposal as you plan your trip to HMNS. Need information about an upcoming show? We’ve got you covered. Want someone to visit your school and go through our amazing opportunities? Done. Need to figure out the perfect itinerary for your group of students? Absolutely.

Our three coordinators spend the vast majority of their time out in the community, visiting your schools and finding out what you need. There is no reason to be overwhelmed by the prospect of planning a field trip — even early in the school year — because your coordinator will walk you through every step of the process, ensuring that you and your students have an amazing experience.

Don’t know who your coordinator is? Shoot us an email at fieldtrips@hmns.org and we’ll get you in touch.

 

2. ESTABLISH PRIOR KNOWLEDGE: Because those light bulb moments don’t come out of thin air.

Get students excited about what’s to come in the school year, whether you will be teaching them about metamorphosis, ancient cultures, climate change or alternative energy. We even offer free online curriculum, designed to help guide students through the exhibit halls while focusing on a variety of age-appropriate TEKS. Ignite excitement and encourage student inquiry via a fall field trip that you can refer back to throughout the school year.

 

3. ENJOY FEWER CROWDS: Because crowd surfing is overrated.

If you’ve visited HMNS during April or May, you know how hectic it can get. We love seeing so many schools take advantage of our programs, but if you’re looking for a somewhat quieter experience, consider taking a trip during the first semester. You’ll find that you can explore the Museum without being shoulder-to-shoulder with several hundred other students at any given moment.

 

4. TAKE ADVANTAGE OF FALL DEALS: Because thrift never goes out of style.

Everyone loves a discount! If you book a field trip in the month of September, you can take advantage of our fall special. Bring your students to either the Burke Baker Planetarium, the Wortham Giant Screen Theatre, or the Cockrell Butterfly Center on a Monday or Tuesday during September and receive access to the permanent exhibit halls for free.

 

5. SEE IT FIRST, OWN IT FIRST: Because whoever said “first is the worst” is just mad that they weren’t first.

HMNS is changing constantly — for the better! We are opening new halls, establishing new programs, and premiering new shows that will get your students excited about learning. By bringing your students to the Museum early in the year, you get to experience everything that HMNS has to offer first and take it back to your school to share the love. Trust us, your students will love you for it.

This is your Museum, and we are proud to be a part of your educational toolkit. Treat yourself — and your students — to a world-class experience that will set the tone for an exciting school year full of discovery!