News from the trenches: Diggers make significant discoveries at Sanxingdui

Archaeology is a profession that requires patience, persistence, and luck. In fact, a great deal of luck seems to be a prerequisite to make a great discovery; some of these involve kids and dogs. We are fortunate to know about the Lascaux caves because of a boy and his dog. A similar scenario led to the discovery of a new hominid fossil, Australopithecus sediba, near the Malapa cave in South Africa. The famous Chinese terra cotta warriors were found by farmers digging a well. The first artifacts at Sanxingdui were discovered by a farmer, as well.

Fairly recently, some eighty-five years after the initial discovery of the site, interesting new finds at Sanxingdui have been announced.

Sanxingdui

According to recent reports, archaeologists discovered a portion of the northern wall at Sanxingdui. The northern part of the wall would have run along the Jian River, according to this site map. (Image licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons).

Archaeologists have discovered what may be a section of the north wall at Sanxingdui. In addition, three tombs were found. A well preserved human skeleton was uncovered in one of these. It was dated to the Neolithic, well before the Sanxingdui site was occupied. As far as we know, human remains dating back to the actual Sanxingdui – Jinsha timeframe have only been discovered at Jinsha.

chinese vice premier

Vice Premier Liu Yongdan, who visited the Houston Museum of Natural Science on June 21 2015. (Image courtesy of the U.S. Department of State from United States)

The complete lack of known written sources at Sanxingdui and Jinsha continues to hamper our understanding of this amazing and sophisticated culture. In her recent visit to the exhibit China’s Lost Civilization: The Mysteries of Sanxingdui at the Houston Museum of Natural Science, Vice Premier Mme. Liu Yongdan said this was indeed the biggest obstacle to our appreciation of the culture. She expressed hope that ongoing research would eventually uncover such information, a development which would bring Sanxingdui out of the shadows of prehistory and into the light of history. Discoveries like these can only strengthen China’s submission of the site as a potential UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Sith take over HMNS Samurai exhibit during Jedi tour

 

Ever wonder where George Lucas got his ideas for the futuristic costumes in Star Wars? Darth Vader’s intimidating helmet seems the stuff of a sci-fi nightmare, and a hot, glowing light saber seems like a swordfighter’s dream. These costumes remain some of the most iconic in film history, but they were based in reality.

1

An intimidating Darth Nihilus threatens guests with his light saber in the Samurai exhibit.

Lucas was a fan of Japanese samurai culture, and it shows through his costumes and the code of the jedi, those warrior-monks who trust in the Force and give their lives to the service of those they are sworn to protect. The jedi use ancient weapons even by the standards of the Star Wars universe, and train from childhood to master the secrets of the Force.

The samurai of feudal Japan held a similar attitude. The word itself means “service,” and while samurai could hold no possessions, their communities and the royalty they protected made sure their needs were met while they trained in the disciplines of combat and self-control. It was disgraceful to live as a samurai without a master, and taking their own lives at the end of their service was common.

2

George Lucas modeled his Storm Trooper helmets in part from samurai warrior garb.

Lucas credited mythologist Joseph Campbell for influencing the structure of the Star Wars movies, explaining that in the West, mythology had begun to disappear with the downfall of the Western, and he wanted his work to “set standards” in the fashion of old myths. Couple this with a fascination with the famous film by Akira Kurosawa, The Seven Samurai, and Lucas had the makings of his space opera franchise. Though Kurosawa was a Japanese filmmaker, themes in the movie carried many of the same values audiences saw in the western: loyalty, trust, ingenuity, power, and faith in the underdog to name a few.

8

Boba Fett also owes his look to the samurai.

Science fiction was the trending tale of the late 1970s. Interest in space and adventure ran high, and Lucas saw an opportunity to marry his love of mythos, Japanese culture, and the sci-fi genre into the highest-grossing film of all time until Titanic hit the big screen in 1997.

With the opening of the Samurai: The Way of the Warrior temporary exhibit at the Houston Museum of Natural Science, docent Kris Mills, a student of costume history, saw an opportunity to demonstrate the link between Lucas and traditional Japanese clothing. Mills hosted the first Jedi-Samurai Tour Thursday night, a multimedia presentation featuring photography, Lucas’s costumes, and a demonstration of katana and light saber techniques. Kurosawa’s The Seven Samurai was screened in the exhibit as well. Comparing the western art with the eastern culture side-by-side offers a deeper appreciation of Star Wars and samurai culture alike.

9

The cast of characters who visited the exhibit for the Jedi-Samurai tour Thursday night.

“[Star Wars] was traditional Japanese clothing and values translated into science fiction,” Mills said. “George Lucas wanted to give his generation Buck Rogers, but he’d been reading Joseph Campbell, so he was influenced by the Asian saga.”

In the slide show, it becomes apparent that Lucas used samurai masks as models for Darth Maul’s face paint and other Sith helmets, samurai kabuto and Han Dynasty hair styles for Queen Amidala and other royalty, and the Japanese obi or robe for the jedi’s distinctive monk-like appearance. (One wonders whether Lucas didn’t use Asian terminology to name his characters Han Solo and Obi-Wan Kenobi as well.) Adam Barnes, modeling the jedi costume, introduced these themes before guiding the guests into the exhibit.

3

The bear-like Ewoks of planet Endor seem similar in many ways to samurai archer.

“The idea of imperialism and a grand empire versus a small band of samurai-like rebels is also very Japanese,” Barnes explained.

Models appeared in an Imperial Storm Trooper outfit, Boba Fett’s armor, the costume and face mask of Darth Nihilus, a Sith lord from the video game Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic, and in a Chewbacca outfit. With the models standing beside samurai helmets and armor, it’s easy to make connections. Of course, it’s also a blast just to hang out with Star Wars characters and see cool samurai gear, not to mention a great photo op!

5

Come to see the jedi and Sith, or come to see the intricate samurai armor. The armor itself is a must-see.

Take the Jedi – Samurai Tour July 16 or August 20 from 6 to 9:30 p.m., or check out Samurai: The Way of the Warrior before the exhibit makes like a ninja and vanishes September 13. For more information about this and other presentations, visit HMNS online.

 

 

 

 

 

Hard currency: Stone money of the Yap Islands

We have all grown accustomed to seeing new forms of payment pop up every day. Cash is used less and less. To be “with the times” now requires making payments electronically, and invisibly. Actual tangible objects, such as coins or bills, are exchanged less and less. Instead, electrons silently move funds from one account to another. Payment is still made, but the way in which it is done has changed dramatically. This blog entry deals with a form of payment that is quite different from what we would consider normal in the Western world. How would you feel about making payments with stone money?

The inhabitants of the island of Yap do exactly that: they pay with stones. They also use shells as currency. Each one of these forms of payment has one thing in common: the exchange medium represents something rare, or something that requires hard work to obtain, thus making it valuable.

We will start out this blog by finding where in the world Yap is located. Then we will see how the Yapese made their stone money, and where they went to get the stone (you will be surprised). Finally, we will answer the question: is this still used today, or is it ancient history?

Micronesia, Federated States of - . Map.

Federated States of Micronesia. The Yap Islands can be found in the far western portion of the Federated States.

Yap Island is part of the Federated States of Micronesia. With a total surface of 271 square miles, the land area of the entire Federated States represents about four times the size of Washington, DC.

Yap_Islands

The Yap Islands are comprised of several islands, the largest of which is the eponymous Yap Island. (“Yap Islands”. Licensed under CC BY 2.5 via Wikimedia Commons.)

Wikimedia Commons

Yap Islanders use stone and shells as currency, or more specifically, as an “exchange valuable” (Fitzpatrick 2003:67). Yap stone money discs take the shape of a donut. They range in size from small (measuring just a few inches in diameter) to enormous (12 ft in diameter, 1.5 ft thick and weighing 8,800 lbs).

The origin of these stone discs remains murky. Some researchers have suggested that the earliest stones, alleged to have been very small, might have imitated stone or shell beads (Fitzpatrick 2003:68).

The intrinsic value of such a Rai stone, as they are known among the locals, is based on the effort that went into quarrying it, the quality of its finish, and its history. The latter is important, if not a bit morbid. If it is known that a person lost his life while bringing the stone back to Yap, then the value of that stone increased (Fitzpatrick 2002:229; 2003: 77-79). You read this right: they brought the stones back to Yap. The stone used to make these money discs does not come from Yap Island. Rai stones were made from limestone (Fitzpatrick 2003:68, 116-124) from the islands of Palau, located 280 miles southwest of Yap Island. To a lesser degree, the Yapese also traveled in the opposite direction, to Guam, to quarry stone money (Fitzpatrick 2003:70). This was quite a feat. How was this done?

Palau Islands

ps_large_locator Palau Islands and their location in the Pacific.

Excavations and radiocarbon dates have revealed that the quarrying activity took place in Palau (Fitzpatrick, 2002: 227, 239) at least several hundred years prior to European contact; it intensified shortly thereafter. About ten quarries in Palau from which the Yap islanders extracted their stone money have been recorded; more remain to be investigated (Fitzpatrick, 2003:8). One of these localities was Omis cave. It contained several unfinished money discs (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 138-160). Radiocarbon dates suggest that work in this cave was carried out during the historic period, going back around two to three centuries ago (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 159).

Work done by archaeologists in 1999 and 2000 identified at least 15 stone money discs in various stages of production in the vicinity of four quarries on the Island of Palau. Shellfish and other faunal remains were also found (Fitzpatrick, 2002: 228; Fitzpatrick, 2003:299).

As far as we know, Palauans never traveled to Yap to participate in trade; instead this was a one-way trade, with Yapese setting out for Palau and returning with the much desired stone money (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 6, 40).

Imagine setting out in your outrigger canoe to travel from Yap Island to Palau to mine stones and shape them into the stone donuts we have come to know. This process involved several stages (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 295-297).

Selecting the quarry: Yapese workers had to obtain permission from Palauan chiefs to quarry. Once they did, they would select a cave or rock shelter along the coast.

Perform carving: upon selecting a suitable deposit of limestone, a general shape was “roughed out.” This was done in situ, meaning the blocks were not hauled off to another area to be transformed.

Detailed carving: Yapese workers used gouges and chisels to create a flat and smooth surface. The disc was probably removed from the limestone deposit during or after this stage.

Abrasion/flattening: after the shape of the disc was complete, the surface was further flattened using a chisel made from shell, stone or iron.

Perforation: the disc was then perforated in the center. Oral traditions tell us this was initially done with coral and a fire drill. Later, iron tools were used.  

Polishing: this represents the final stage of the process. The use of an abrader, such as pumice, mixed with water resulted in a smooth finish of the stone’s surface.

Getting to Palau was one thing, returning with a heavy stone disc must have been quite an experience. First they would have to be brought down to the water’s edge. This is where the hole in the center comes in handy: a sturdy wooden pole would enable porters to lift it and move it to the beach.

Stone_Money_of_Uap,_1903,_Jayne,_String_Figures,_p.160

Logistics of moving Yap money around. Note the wooden poles sticking through the stones.

At least three modes of transportation were used to get the stone discs from Palau to Yap. The first form of transportation involved the traditional watercraft in this part of the world, a canoe, or two canoes in the case of a large stone. A late 19th century account relates that the stones had “a large hole in the centre through which a log is passed and this, when laid across two canoes, is sufficient to support the stone in transit.” (Le Hunte, 1883:25). Another approach seems to have been to fill the canoes with water, then load the disc and bail out the water (Fitzpatrick, 2003:311).

A second way of moving the stones involved rafts (Fitzpatrick, 2003: 310-311). A late 19th century illustration depicts a set of Rai money discs resting on a raft. Oral traditions on Yap mention how an early Yapese navigator was caught in a typhoon as he was trying to return home with several stones. We learn that the typhoon “[s]plit the canoes into pieces, and some of the rafts carrying the stones sank, and other rafts were separated from the canoes. But Anguman [the navigator] was able to bring some pieces on his rafts trailing after his canoes” (Fitzpatrick, 2003:73-74).

Investigations close to Omis Cave have revealed the presence a dock at the entrance to the cave. At high tide, the dock is almost fully submerged; at low tide, it is fully exposed. This would have “facilitated the loading of stone money onto watercraft. Rafts could be placed on or adjacent to the dock at low tide and discs moved or rolled on top and secured. At high tide the raft could then be maneuvered out of the shallow lagoon into the deeper channel for eventual transport back to Yap” (Fitzpatrick, 2003:146).

Not all stone discs made it to their destination. Some found a watery resting place. Modern divers have encountered many sunken stone discs in the waters of these islands; there must be many more resting on the bottom of the ocean.

Yap harbor

Yap harbor, showing a raft supporting two stone discs. (From Hernsheim, Franz, 1883. Südsee-Erinnerungen (1875-1880). Berlin : A. Hofmann, p. 125.)

A third form of hauling the stone money was with European ships (Fitzpatrick, 2002: 228; 2003:311-312). This form of transportation allowed many more stones to be shipped safely to Yap. By the late 1800s Yap was inundated with stone money. The Yap islanders paid for these stones with copra (Fitzpatrick 2003:101). The Japanese counted over 13,000 disks during their administration in the 1930s. Typhoons, flooding, and the use of these stones as anchors and construction materials during WWII cut this number in half (Fitzpatrick 2002:229; 2003:111).

Transport by canoe and rafts depended on prevailing trade winds and open ocean currents. The best time to transport discs from Palau to Yap would have been between late April and the beginning of October. The ideal time for Yapese workers to come to Palau to prepare a load of money discs would therefore have been from September to February (Fitzpatrick, 2003:311 – 312).

Just in case you are wondering, the US dollar is now the common currency in Yap. The last stone disc was carved and brought to Yap in 1931 (Fitzpatrick 2003:111-112). From that moment on, the US dollar replaced it as commonly used currency. However, stone money is still used to this day for major transactions like payment of dowry or purchase of land. Moreover, small pre-contact discs are considered more valuable than larger post-contact discs (Fitzpatrick, 2003:302).

Because of their size and weight, the largest stones have not moved since the day they were brought ashore in Yap. We find them lining roads, propped up in front of a house, or standing in someone’s backyard. When transactions involving Rai money occur, ownership of the stone is transferred, but the stone itself does not move. People just know that someone else now owns it.

Yap license plate

Old currency proudly remembered on modern license plate on Yap Island.

More prevalent and much easier to transport are the images of Rai money. As a symbol of Yap Island, they can be found on the island’s license plates.

Speaking of the stone money being a national symbol, one stone disc was presented on the inauguration of the Federated States of Micronesia (July 12, 1978).

 

Yapese stone money for FSM

Presentation of Yapese stone money for FSM (Federated States of Micronesia) inauguration.

Today they help draw and entertain tourists. On Yap Day, March 1st and 2nd (sic), strong island men carry “small change” around, much to the delight of assembled tourists.  Speaking of small change, the Houston Museum of Natural Science also has a small (but still heavy) example of this Rai money.

HMNS stone money

Stone money disc, Yap Island. (HMNS collection.)

Much smaller and rarer than Rai money is Yapese shell currency. In earlier days, shell money served as small change. Two kinds of shell money existed: the mother-of-pearl (yar) and non-native Spondylus shell (gau) (Fitzpatrick, 2002: 228; 2003:7).

Fitzpatrick, Scott M., 2002. A Radiocarbon Chronology of Yapese Stone Money Quarries in Palau. Micronesica 34(2):227-242. [link].

2003. Stones of the Butterfly: An Archaeological Investigation of Yapese Stony Money Quarries in Palau, Western Caroline Islands, Micronesia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon. [link].

Le Hunte, J.R., 1883. Report of HMS Espiegle to Sir G.W. Des Voeux, Acting High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, 10 October 1883. General Proceedings (1-83). Central Archives of Fiji and the Western Pacific, Suva: Fiji.

Museum curator thanks his inspiration: a sixth-grade history teacher

As a museum curator, I have the pleasure of working with lots of volunteers. Most of them are students who are interested in archaeology, anthropology and museum careers. This time of the year, as graduation nears, there is an uptick in requests to come visit with me and ask for information and advice. “How did you become a museum curator?” is a question I hear often. “How long do you need to study?” is another one. One of the first things I bring up is that finding employment in anthropology is not easy. However, it is possible. Moreover, I ask my visitors to suggest one field of study where one would be guaranteed a job upon graduation. I can think of only very few.

Van den Bossche, Gaston

Gaston Van den Bossche, a man who made a difference with his students.

The first question – How does one become a museum curator? – has many answers, I am sure. In my case, there was one elementary school teacher who made a difference, now 44 years ago, to be exact. The sixth and final year in elementary school, my class had a teacher who loved history. He loved the city we lived in too, and it just so happened that city had a very long history.

As the year went by, he organized us into groups and assigned various projects. One involved painting a bird’s eye view of what our hometown would have looked like in the Middle Ages. That required research. It also entailed getting covered in paint as we worked on that assignment. Eventually two different canvases were finished. Much to our delight, they were hung in the entrance to the library. In another assignment, we were divided into five or six groups, each named after a Medieval guild. Some of us were the “coopers” or barrel makers, others the “tanners,” “bakers,” etc.  We were given assignments. To get the answers, we had to visit museums and churches, observe and ask questions. It made us interact with the past, and made this past come alive. It became part of what I got interested in. All because of a teacher.

As time went by, that sixth grade class went on to graduate. I found myself continuing down this path of “studying old things.” This took me from a university in Belgium to a U.S. institution in New Orleans, always pursuing the study of these “old things.” Over the years, that meant studying Roman and Greek history, some Egyptian history, and ultimately the art, archaeology, and history of American cultures, especially the Maya.

Photo by Robin Merrit

Photo by Robin Merrit

I have been very blessed to find a job, and to find myself working at a museum, where I now teach visitors, young, old and anyone in between. Sharing what you have learned about a culture that happens to be the topic of an exhibit is a joy. It is very rewarding to see the light come on in a child, when they “get it.” I love hearing visitors say to each other “I did not know that…” as they walk out of an exhibit. I am indebted to my old teacher for this sense of awe. It never left him. I hope it will never leave me.

Sadly, I recently received news that the man who sent me on my quest, and created that spark in me, had passed. Reason for sadness? For sure. Another reason to keep guiding people as much as possible, and maybe, just maybe, make a difference with one or two people? Absolutely. Next time you see a teacher at a reunion, and you know they made a difference in your life, say so. Give them a hug. They deserve it.