About Kelsey

Kelsey started working at the Museum through Xplorations summer camp, and this fall she started working as a programs facilitator. She is a presenter for several outreach programs, assists with overnight programs, and assists with education collections during summer camp. Her favorite dinosaur is a Triceratops found at HMNS Sugar Land. The Triceratops is also named "Kelsey."

The Science of Summer

Why does ice cream look different when it melts in your car and gets refrozen?
If you have ever made homemade ice cream, you may have noticed that it takes a lot of work. My family’s ice cream maker looked a lot like this one which was electric but needed a little more monitoring than the ones we have today.

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The key to some good ice cream is keeping it at the perfect temperature and keeping it moving. Commercial creameries have special machines that continually stirs the ice cream while it is being frozen. These machines cool the ice cream much more quickly than my home machine ever could, which is why their ice cream is much creamier. It prevents larger ice crystals from freezing in the ice cream.

When ice cream melts in the Houston heat on your way home from the grocery store, you may notice that it’s not quite the same consistency any more. If you put the ice cream back into the freezer, it will refreeze, but over a longer period of time than the original ice cream. In addition when you re-freeze the ice cream, you aren’t churning the mixture. This allows larger crystals to form which affects its appearance and its creamy consistency. It is not recommended to refreeze ice cream that has been left out for a longer period of time. Ice cream is made out of dairy, so it can grow bacteria or spoil if left out for too long!

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How does sunscreen actually work?
First, we have to talk about what happens to cause your skin to burn. When you are out in the sun, your skin is exposed to sunlight which is made from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Ultraviolet radiation can be subdivided into three categories based on wavelength. UV-A radiation has the longest wavelength. It is not absorbed by our atmosphere’s ozone layer and it is the type of UV that is responsible for long term skin damage. UV-B radiation has a shorter wavelength than UV-A. Some of the UV-B radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer and the remaining UV-B radiation that reaches the earth’s surface is responsible for sunburns. The last type of UV radiation is UV-C radiation. It has the shortest wavelength and it is completely absorbed by our atmosphere. On the Earth’s surface, we are not affected by UV-C radiation, but it could be an issue for astronauts if they didn’t have those protective suits. Sunscreen protects our skin from the two most common forms of UV radiation on the earth’s surface – UV-A and UV-B.

Essentially, sunscreen forms a thin, invisible protective layer on the surface of our skin. It uses organic and inorganic active ingredients to form that protective layer. The organic ingredients such as octyl methoxycinnamate and oxybenzone absorb UV rays. When the rays are absorbed, the energy is harmlessly dissipated in the form of heat. Some of the organic materials in sunscreen will slowly break down over time, which is why we need to reapply sunscreen regularly. The inorganic active ingredients like zinc oxide or titanium dioxide reflect the UV radiation essentially preventing the UV radiation from hitting the skin. Early versions of sunscreen were opaque and white, which reflected the UV radiation well. However, it wasn’t the most appealing look for the beach. With newer technology, they’ve made these inorganic materials much smaller and nearly invisible.

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How can I cool down a warm beverage quickly?
It’s the middle of summer, and when you walk outside it feels like you have walked through a curtain of heat and humidity. Nothing sounds better in a Houston summer than a nice, cold drink. But we’ve all forgotten to move something from the pantry to the fridge, and ended up with a warm drink instead. Even when you move that drink to the fridge, it can take over 45 minutes to reach the cool temperature you’d prefer. Here are a few ways to cool down your beverage quickly, and the science on how it works.

Option 1: The Wet Paper Towel Method.
Wrap your bottle or can in a wet paper towel and place in the fridge. The drink will cool down much faster with the wet paper towel because of how heat is transferred. Normally, heat will transfer from a higher temperature object to a lower temperature object. In the case of the drink in the fridge, the heat will transfer from the soda can (higher temperature) to the air in the fridge (lower temperature). Heat can be more easily transferred through a solid like the soda can because the atoms are closer together on average. It is much more difficult with a gas like the air in the fridge because the atoms are more spread out on average. When we put a wet paper towel onto the outside of the can, we are using a liquid to facilitate the transfer of heat more easily than with air. Water from the towel will evaporate from the towel and the remaining water will be cooler. This process is called evaporative cooling. The wet towel also conducts the heat from the can cooling the soda to the temperature you prefer.

Option 2: The Salt & Ice Water Method.
Fill a bowl with ice and water, then pour salt over the icy mixture. Place the can or bottle in the bowl, and stir. It should be colder in about 5 minutes. The reason that this method works so well is trifold. First, you are lowering the melting point of the ice when you add salt so the mixture will be colder than 32° F. Basically as the ice is melting, it is using up a little bit of energy to break bonds causing the remaining water to be colder. Having a colder liquid helps the heat transfer between the liquid and the soda can. Which brings me to the second reason that it cools quickly – it’s a liquid! As we mentioned in option 1, heat can be transferred more easily through water than through air, so the water is facilitating the heat transfer. Lastly, stirring the bottle or can around in the mixture can reduce the amount of time needed to cool down the soda. If you did not stir the mixture, then the can would slowly transfer heat to the liquid surrounding it making the liquid immediately surrounding it warmer. The transfer of heat would continue slowly until both the can and the liquid reach equilibrium. By stirring the mixture, you are exposing the can to more of the cold water which speeds up the transfer of heat. In both situations, the can and liquid are reaching equilibrium, but over different amounts of time.

With either cooling option, you will get a nice cold beverage quickly and now you know the science behind it!

Girls take home STEM prizes at annual GEMS event!

Two weeks ago, we celebrated our annual Girls Exploring Math and Science (GEMS) public event! We had an amazing turnout from local STEM organizations presenting fun activities and demonstrations for kids of all ages. They also helped us find our top three student projects! These projects were presented at booths by students in middle school and high school. We had many amazing projects, and it was unfortunate we could only choose three winners! We’re proud to present the top three student projects.

3rd place winners

In third place, we have a group of high school students from the Jersey Village robotics team, Jersey Voltage. Their project entitled “Up, Up & Robots Away!” focused on the robot the group built in just six weeks. The robot was programmed to pick up and stack boxes more than six feet high. They hope to use their winnings to fund parts for their robot and their entry into robotics competitions.

2nd place winners

Our second place group presented a project called “Fun with Fizix,” which discussed several areas of physics. This group of girls from Awty International School demonstrated Bernoulli’s principle, as well as surface area and conservation of energy. They’d like to use their winnings to go on a field trip to see physics in action!

First Place Winners

Finally, we’d like to introduce our first place winners! The group of girls from Girl Scout Troop 21276 presented a project about genetically modified organisms called “GMOs: The New Revolution of Food.” They experimented growing different varieties of food to determine the effectiveness of GMO produce and food. The group created a model that described how genetically modified rice could last longer during the wet season than non-genetically modified rice. They plan to use the grand prize winning for the T.H. Rogers science program and perhaps a Night at the Museum!

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Thank you for coming out to GEMS 2016! If you’d like to participate next year, please email gems@hmns.org for more information. Join us at next year’s GEMS event on February 18, 2017! 

 

This Saturday, The Educator Event gives teachers a look at Houston museums

The Educator Event @HMNS is an exclusive event for all educators including student teachers, administrators, education undergraduate and graduate students, and home school educators. Join us Saturday, Jan. 23 from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. for a free day at the museum featuring educational workshops and the opportunity to earn three hours of CPE credit. Workshops will be presented by the Houston Museum of Natural Science as well as other local museums and educational institutions. Workshops will cover several subject areas from science to history to art! San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site presents a workshop on how the Battle of San Jacinto was a turning point in Texas history. Explore the Hoover Dam with NRG Energy and create your own pocket book with The Printing Museum. Check out all 14 workshops in our event program to plan out your day!

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Discover field trips, outreach programs and teacher workshops that cater to your needs! There will be representatives from multiple organizations offering curriculum, field trip ideas, and activities for your subject. Get your students to interact with Texas history by visiting the Houston Heritage Society table and discovering their historical field trips.  Discover the geometry of a baseball field by talking to Minute Maid Park Tours about their TEKS-aligned programming. For a truly unique experience with biology and history, talk to the National Museum of Funeral History about their History of Embalming exhibit. Come see these organizations and more to discover how to create an experience your students will never forget!

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Registration is still open. Sign up today at www.hmns.org/educatorevent.

Color and Create for the Secret Ocean Art Contest!

The bright colors of life on the coral reef inspire artists all over the globe. How well does your art measure up? Show off your talent through the Secret Ocean Art Contest, and you could win free museum tickets and an artist feature on the big screen! Check out some of our ideas below and learn how to enter the contest before the Sept. 25 deadline.

In the saltwater world captured in Jean-Michel Cousteau’s Secret Ocean 3Dwe see many animals with bright colors and vibrant patterns, and struggle to find some of the animals hiding in plain sight. Coloration plays an important role to survival in most environments. Animals with appropriate coloration can be better at confusing predators, attracting mates, or blending in to catch the next meal. Every animal has its own approach to coloration, and they each use it for more than just beauty.

Dangerous distraction

The lionfish is known for its large elegant fins and the impressive venomous spines along its back, but the red-striped pattern of the lionfish makes it a fierce predator at the top of its food chain. The lionfish does not use its venomous spines to capture prey. The venom is meant to protect the lionfish from other predators, and it is quite successful! The bright pattern on its body warns predators that the lionfish is venomous. Its warning coloration may be the reason there are no known predators for the lionfish that were introduced into the Caribbean.

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Flickr Creative Commons.

Bright beauty

The clownfish is also known for its distinct color pattern. Unlike the lionfish, clownfish coloration does not serve as a warning. Rather, it helps them avoid predation. The white stripes break up the body of the clownfish making it harder for another animal to see. Using stripes and spots in this manner is called disruptive coloration. The disruptive coloration on the clownfish can confuse a predator for just enough time and allow the clownfish to retreat safely into its anemone.

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Flickr Creative Commons.

Clever camouflage

One of the best color patterns for animals is one that goes unnoticed entirely. It’s hard to catch an animal that you cannot find. The octopus is well known for its ability to change the color and texture of its skin to blend into its surroundings. This camouflage can help the animal escape predators as well as sneak up on unassuming prey. An octopus can also mimic rocks, algae and even coconuts to blend in to all sorts of environments.

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Flickr Creative Commons.

Now, combine your artistic talent with your knowledge of coloration for our contest! To compete, print out a copy of the rules and the Secret Ocean art contest template, then create your masterpiece. You can use paint, crayons, sand, glitter, beads and almost anything you can think of to create a fish or octopus. Don’t forget to submit before the deadline, Sept. 25! The top pieces will win great prizes like tickets to the HMNS permanent exhibit halls or to a showing of Jean-Michel Cousteau’s Secret Ocean 3D at the Wortham Giant Screen Theatre. Your artwork could also be projected onto the big screen!

Give us your best shot! We’re looking forward to your colorful creations. Best of luck!