Conservation student Kate Brugioni blows the lid off the restoration process for ancient Egyptian artifacts

Editor’s note: This fall some changes are coming to the HMNS Hall of Ancient Egypt. Some artifacts will leave and others are coming in on new loans. As we prepare for this, NYU third-year art conservation student Kate Brugioni will take us through the restoration process for ancient artifacts. 

When you walk around the Hall of Ancient Egypt, you see some pretty old stuff — actually some really old stuff. We’re talking thousands of years here, folks. But have you ever wondered how everything stays in top condition? 

Well that’s my job (rather, summer internship, but it will be my job soon)!

I’m Kate Brugioni, rising third-year art conservation student at the Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts at NYU. My education combines a study of art history, archaeology, museology and science. After completing this rigorous four-year program, I will graduate with a Master’s degree in Art History and an Advanced Certificate in Conservation.

As a student with a particular interest in painted wood surfaces, I am excited to be treating the Carlos Museum‘s polychrome-wood coffin lid, dated to the 22nd–24th dynasties of Ancient Egypt (943–720 BCE). More than 500 hours of documentation, study, and treatment will be completed over the course of this project, and I would like to share something of the sense of excitement and discovery this opportunity has brought me.

Photograph by Ashley Jehle.

Kate Brugioni and Renée Stein examining the reverse side of the coffin lid.

One of the most striking features of this anthropoid coffin lid is the ancient wood, largely left uncovered to showcase its fine texture; the painted wsh (“broad”) collar; and offertory inscription down the center. Of special interest are the features original to the coffin construction, such as dowels, mortise and tenon structures, an ochre-colored preparation layer and painted decoration. Over the course of treatment, these will be carefully documented, cleaned and stabilized.

Although the arid Egyptian climate preserved much of the wood substrate, diffuse fungal deterioration, abrasion, and flaking has affected the structure and appearance of the coffin lid. Additionally, a number of invasive “restoration” campaigns has damaged the ancient surface and structure.

The important second step of this project will be to locate and characterize these restoration materials, and deciding how they could be best reversed, where appropriate

Photo by Kate Brugioni.

Ancient Egyptian Coffin Lid (obverse). 22nd-24th Dynasty (MCCM.2011.01). Before treatment.


Photo by Kate Brugioni.

Ancient Egyptian Coffin Lid (reverse). 22nd-24th Dynasty (MCCM.2011.01). Before treatment.

Thank you for reading, and please stay tuned to this blog for up-to-date information about our findings over the course of treatment.

Oh, and one more thing! I would like to thank the Houston Museum of Natural Science for so generously supporting my summer internship at the Parsons Conservation Laboratory at the Michael C. Carlos Museum at Emory University, where I am preparing an ancient Egyptian coffin lid for long-term loan to the Hall of Ancient Egypt at HMNS.

Educator How-To: Be your own knight in shining armor with homemade chain maille

When people think of knights, they generally think of armor, too. The plate armor most associated with knights was actually a fairly recent invention. Armor started as quilted shirts and thick leather pieces to cover arms and legs (if you were fortunate enough to afford it!).

Chain maille was a pretty fantastic innovation for the time, but it had its drawbacks, too. It was heavy and cumbersome and only as strong as each individual link. Because the links were made of steel or iron, they rusted quite readily, and those rusty links were the proverbial “chinks in the armor.” They were points of weakness that might allow a sword point or arrow to penetrate. 

The job of armor maintenance was given to young boys that might otherwise be underfoot. To start, the armor was placed in a barrel of sand and sealed up. The boys would then roll the barrels back and forth across the yard and the sand would scour the blood and sweat and rust off the links. Even a well-maintained chain maille shirt would need repairs quite often and the color on even the best of days would be a dull dark gray.

Further innovations led to the plate armor that we know today, but even then, it wasn’t always so shining. Here is a suit of armor that belonged to Henry VIII. 

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Beautiful? Yes. Well-crafted? Yes. Shining? Not so much.

Don’t be fooled into thinking that body armor like this was a strictly European invention.  Most cultures that engage in warfare have some sort of armor to counteract the weapons. Some of the armor is ceremonial, but more often than not, it is clever and particular to the local environment. 

The Maya and Aztec, for example, wore knee-length jackets of tightly-woven quilted cotton called ichcahuipilli. The jackets were soaked in salt water and then the water was allowed to evaporate. The salt left behind would crystalize between the quilted portions of the jacket, creating small, thick, sturdy plates of protection which were effective against arrows, atlatl darts, obsidian swords and batons.

Youth Ed Armor 3

Youth Ed Armor 4

 

They didn’t have cotton in Micronesia, so on the islands of Kiribati, they used what they did have: coconuts. Helmets, leg coverings, shirts and chest protection were made from tightly-woven coconut fibers as protection against another natural resource: sharks (or more accurately, shark teeth). The teeth of the sharks were drilled in the roots and then attached to the base with bits from the veins of the coconut leaf or human hair. The shark-tooth swords were intended to disembowel an enemy or open a major artery so he would bleed out. Yikes!

Want in on all this exciting armor action? You’ve got two options!

Option 1: Bring your crew down to see Magna Carta before it leaves on August 17th.  You have three short weeks! If you want to bring a school group or day care, be sure to contact fieldtrips@hmns.org to get the school rate. You will also want to consider coming on a Friday mornings at around 11.

Youth Ed Armor 6

Option 2: Can’t make it to us? Then try your hand at making your own armor. Sort of.  Here’s a pretty easy chain maille bracelet you can make at home. It won’t offer you much protection but it will allow you to practice your technique before trying something a little more complicated.

Materials:

-Jump rings or chain maille rings (The bigger they are, the less work for you.)
-The clasp of your choice or a piece of leather or ribbon to tie the bracelet ends together
-2 pairs of jewelers pliers (or needle-nosed pliers if you are in a pinch)
-A tape measure or piece of paper to measure your wrist

Procedure:

  1. Measure how long you want your bracelet to be using a tape measure (or even a piece of paper). The standard size for women is about 7 inches and the standard size for men is about 8.
  2. Open several of your jump rings. To open them, you DON’T want to pull them apart.  Instead you want to twist them open. If the individual rings start off as an “O” shape, you don’t want to make them into a wide-mouthed “C”. Instead, you want to slide the ends away from each other, one towards you and one away from you. Because of the way the rings are made, they naturally take that shape, so that should help you get started. If your rings lay flat when opened (rather than in a twisty shape), you will need to try again! Once you have a pile of open rings, things get a little trickier. You can keep up though. I believe in you.

    Youth Ed Armor 7

  3. The next step is to put four closed rings on an open ring and then slide the open ring back into the closed position. Then repeat this step over and over. You will need probably 10 of these 4-in-1 sets for a 7-inch bracelet.

    Youth Ed Armor 8Youth Ed Armor 9

  4. Once you have the 4-in-1 sets made, you will need to use your pliers to separate out two rings from the four. The set should hang from your pliers as two rings, with one ring in the middle and two more rings at the bottom. You are then going to feed an open ring through the top two rings. Shift your pliers around so that you are now holding onto that open ring.

    Youth Ed Armor 10Youth Ed Armor 11

  5. Using your other set of pliers, pick up two rings on another 4-in-1 set. Loop those two rings through the open ring (effectively creating a new 4-in-1 set) and then close the open ring. You should have created a small chain at this point. Great job!

    Youth Ed Armor 12

  6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until you have 4 or 5 small chains. I am doing 4, but I have pretty small wrists.

    Youth Ed Armor 13

  7. Getting close to being done! You will need to link these small chains in exactly the same way you did the sets. Take two rings from the top of one small chain and put them on an open ring with two rings from the top of another small chain.
  8. Now, repeat step seven with your longer chains!
  9. Finish up by adding a single jump ring to each end. This will let you tie the two ends together, or you can add a clasp to that last ring before you close it up. You’re done!

    Youth Ed Armor 14

It’s as easy as A-B-C: Five reasons to book a back-to-school field trip this fall

Field Treip memeThe beginning of the school year is lurking just around the corner …

… which we love here at HMNS, where we are even more passionate about education than we are about dinosaur poop (ahem, coprolites). Our venues are chock-full of fun, hands-on exhibits, films and activities that introduce students to the world beyond their classroom.

Field trips allow students to own their education, and to be an active participant in their learning — which is why visiting HMNS this fall is a fantastic way to kick off the school year. Rather than waiting until April and May, give students an early opportunity to embrace HMNS as a part of their educational path. Give them the chance to OWN IT.

Not convinced? Here are five great reasons to pay us a visit this fall.

1. GET THE VIP TREATMENT: You’re a star (teacher), so we’ll treat you like one!

We know that a fall field trip can be a bit intimidating. You don’t know your students, the demands of the school year are looming in front of you, and you’re still waiting on your supply order to be filled. Planning a field trip on top of everything else can be daunting. Don’t worry — we’re here to help.

Our field trip coordinators have all been in the classroom, are familiar with current TEKS, and understand the demands of a full curriculum. They are also at your disposal as you plan your trip to HMNS. Need information about an upcoming show? We’ve got you covered. Want someone to visit your school and go through our amazing opportunities? Done. Need to figure out the perfect itinerary for your group of students? Absolutely.

Our three coordinators spend the vast majority of their time out in the community, visiting your schools and finding out what you need. There is no reason to be overwhelmed by the prospect of planning a field trip — even early in the school year — because your coordinator will walk you through every step of the process, ensuring that you and your students have an amazing experience.

Don’t know who your coordinator is? Shoot us an email at fieldtrips@hmns.org and we’ll get you in touch.

 

2. ESTABLISH PRIOR KNOWLEDGE: Because those light bulb moments don’t come out of thin air.

Get students excited about what’s to come in the school year, whether you will be teaching them about metamorphosis, ancient cultures, climate change or alternative energy. We even offer free online curriculum, designed to help guide students through the exhibit halls while focusing on a variety of age-appropriate TEKS. Ignite excitement and encourage student inquiry via a fall field trip that you can refer back to throughout the school year.

 

3. ENJOY FEWER CROWDS: Because crowd surfing is overrated.

If you’ve visited HMNS during April or May, you know how hectic it can get. We love seeing so many schools take advantage of our programs, but if you’re looking for a somewhat quieter experience, consider taking a trip during the first semester. You’ll find that you can explore the Museum without being shoulder-to-shoulder with several hundred other students at any given moment.

 

4. TAKE ADVANTAGE OF FALL DEALS: Because thrift never goes out of style.

Everyone loves a discount! If you book a field trip in the month of September, you can take advantage of our fall special. Bring your students to either the Burke Baker Planetarium, the Wortham Giant Screen Theatre, or the Cockrell Butterfly Center on a Monday or Tuesday during September and receive access to the permanent exhibit halls for free.

 

5. SEE IT FIRST, OWN IT FIRST: Because whoever said “first is the worst” is just mad that they weren’t first.

HMNS is changing constantly — for the better! We are opening new halls, establishing new programs, and premiering new shows that will get your students excited about learning. By bringing your students to the Museum early in the year, you get to experience everything that HMNS has to offer first and take it back to your school to share the love. Trust us, your students will love you for it.

This is your Museum, and we are proud to be a part of your educational toolkit. Treat yourself — and your students — to a world-class experience that will set the tone for an exciting school year full of discovery!

STEM & GEMS: CB&I’s Katie Balko engineers her future

Editor’s Note: As part of our annual GEMS (Girls Exploring Math and Science) program, we conduct interviews with women who have pursued careers in science, technology, engineering, or math. This week, we’re featuring Katie Balko, Process Engineer at CB&I.HMNS: How old were you when you first became interested in science, technology, engineering, or math?
Balko: Growing up, I switched what I wanted to be when I grew up almost every year. I wanted to be a teacher, then I read a book on dolphins and wanted to be a marine biologist. I liked to draw and decided I was going to be like my favorite author and write and illustrate my own books.

Math had always come easy for me. And after reading another book in high school, I decided I was going to be a physical therapist. All that changed when I took a chemistry class. I loved it. Even though I was already accepted to college for physical therapy, I decided to take a chance and on the last day of admissions, I applied to another college for chemical engineering and got in. I took my love of chemistry with the fact that I was good at math and found the right degree for me in engineering.

HMNS: Was there a specific person or event that inspired you when you were younger?
Balko: My chemistry teacher my senior year of high school really helped me realize that I liked chemistry. She worked with me on what would be tested in college and prepared me for what the classes would be like. It was hard, I studied every night, but it paid off in the long run.

HMNS: What was your favorite class when you were in school?
Balko: My favorite class (and lab) was Organic Chemistry. It is most people’s least favorite and I understand why. It’s tough. It was tough for me, too, but I also saw it as a puzzle with a specific set of rules. When I thought in terms of a puzzle, it made it easier. The lab was also cool because you were making things you see and hear about every day — like separating out caffeine.

HMNS: What is your current job? How does this relate to science, technology, engineering, or math?
Balko: Right now, I am process (chemical) engineer at CB&I, an engineering and construction company. I work for their gas processing group. I design plants that take all the “bad things” out of gas so it can be used cleanly.

I have also been switching over into a sales role over the past year. I think it’s important to keep growing in your career and I find this part of the business interesting. I also want to keep building on my degree as an engineer to do bigger and better things.

HMNS: What’s the best part of your job?
Balko: I joined on as a rotational engineer, so I got to experience a lot of different jobs in the company from chemical engineering to marketing. Through the different roles, I was able to network with a lot of people. I think the best part is having the opportunity to take a background in engineering and apply it to different roles.

HMNS: What do you like to do in your spare time?
Balko: Last year, I traveled a lot — both for work and for fun! This year looks to be about the same and I love it. I’m not a big movie or TV person but I love to read and to draw. I also like to stay active. I’ve been doing yoga consistently for five years, and last year I started doing CrossFit.

HMNS: What advice would you give to girls interested in pursuing a STEM career? 
Balko: It’s worth it if it interests you. It will be hard, but the rewards are great. Use whatever resources you have. In college, I had a very good study group that helped push me through projects and exams. I utilized all of my teachers’ and TAs’ office hours and even had a tutor who helped get me through a hard math course.

Ask questions and don’t stop learning. Most people want to see you succeed but they won’t know you don’t understand something unless you ask them.

Volunteer. Volunteer to be the project lead in college. It might be scary and hard but you’ll figure it out and learn a lot in the process. Lead your team to help everyone succeed.         

HMNS: Why do you think it’s important for girls to have access to an event like GEMS?
Balko: There are more men than women in STEM careers. Events like GEMS get girls exposed to successful women in math and science, which helps to bring awareness to their potential and knowledge about those careers.

More about Katie Balko:
Katie Balko grew up in a small town about an hour outside of Pittsburgh. She has two younger sisters and a younger brother, and was a Girl Scout for nine years. In high school, she was on the swim, soccer and lacrosse teams. She went to Penn State University where she earned a degree in Chemical Engineering. After graduating, Balko decided to move out of state and found herself in Texas. She has now lived in Houston for six years.

HMC SWE Rosie tattoo

Click this image to go to the Society of Women Engineers (SWE) website.