The (Real) First Thanksgiving: the Wampanoag Perspective

Most of us know the story. Seeking a place to establish a Puritan church, the Pilgrims arrive on the Mayflower at Plymouth Rock in 1620 and have a hard winter, so the Indians teach them how to grow their own food over the next year. The following harvest, they hold a huge feast to honor the Indians with turkey and dressing and pumpkin pie and celebrate their new-found friends and the peace between them, and we’ve kept that tradition ever since. But most of this isn’t true, and every tale has more than one perspective.


Our storybook version, featuring a giant turkey, grapes, and a majority of Pilgrims.

To the Wampanoag, the Native American people who aided the Pilgrims, things happened in a very different way. Their story begins like this. The Wampanoag had seen whites before, but when the English Pilgrims arrived with women and children, they didn’t see them as a threat. The winter was hard, that is true. From hiding, the Wampanoag watched 46 of the original 102 settlers perish from cold and hunger. March 16 the following year, a Monhegan from Maine named Samoset made contact with the Pilgrims, and the next day returned with Tisquantum, better known as Squanto, a Wampanoag who had learned English. Squanto befriended the English and taught them how to fish, how to plant corn, and how to hunt for nuts and berries. As a result of their friendship, the Pilgrims entered into a peace treaty with Massassoit, the Wampanoag chief, and heeded the advice of their new friends.

In September or October, their crops had a good yield, and they decided to hold a traditional English harvest feast. Historians draw the story of the first thanksgiving from two accounts, one of which was written by Pilgrim Edward Winslow. His account mentions the Pilgrims “sent four men on fowling,” meaning bird hunting, and that “we exercised our arms,” meaning gun fire. These men did hunt for “turkey,” but the word referred to any kind of bird, not necessarily the centerpiece of the contemporary Thanksgiving table.


A more accurate representation, but still featuring a turkey at the center of the table and just six Wampanoag.

The Wampanoag weren’t invited to this feast originally, according to Tim Turner, Cherokee, manager of Plimoth Plantation’s Wampanoag Homesite and co-owner of Native Plymouth Tours.

“Most historians believe what happened was Massassoit got word there was a tremendous amount of gun fire coming from the Pilgrim village,” Turner said, “so he thought they were being attacked and he was going to bear aid.”

Massassoit came with 90 of his warriors, prepared to do battle. Since there was none, the Pilgrims invited their new friends to their feast. However, there wasn’t enough to feed everyone, so the warriors went out and brought back five deer, their contribution, according to Kathleen Wall, Colonial Foodways Culinarian at Plimouth Plantation.

The feast lasted three days and likely included pumpkin, fish, berries, watercress, lobster, dried fruit, clams and plums in addition to the poultry and venison. There was no flour, so likely no pies or pastries. We can and should imagine a warm, three-day feast between the Wampanoag and the Pilgrims, a picture of unlikely togetherness and a celebration that marks a large part of the American identity, but consider that there were 91 Indians and around 50 Pilgrims. Re-think that long table surrounded by settlers with a few Indians thrown in, and forget that it was annual tradition.


This representation is the most accurate, featuring a majority of Wampanoag, no turkey, and a large gathering.

Thanksgiving had been proclaimed by governors and presidents in the 13 colonies at one time or another, but as the country grew, many U.S. citizens didn’t feel it was appropriate. It wasn’t until magazine editor Sarah Josepha Hale campaigned for the national holiday in her writing, an effort bordering on obsession. For 40 years, Hale pushed for the establishment of a Thanksgiving Day, publishing editorials in Boston Ladies’ Magazine and Godey’s Lady’s Book. (Incidentally, she is also the author of the children’s song Mary Had a Little Lamb.)Finally, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the last Thursday in November as a national day of thanksgiving, but it still wasn’t what we celebrate today.


Sarah Josepha Hale

During Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency, the holiday was pushed forward a week to create a longer Christmas shopping season, but public uproar convinced him to move it back to its original date. In 1941, Congress named Thanksgiving Day a legal holiday, the fourth Thursday in November.

This Thanksgiving, and every Thanksgiving following it, give gratitude for this wonderful country we live in. Enjoy your family. Enjoy your friends. Enjoy the fruits of your labor and all the things and people you have in your life. Give thanks for whatever fortune has bestowed upon you this year. Give thanks to those who fought and died to build this nation. Give thanks for being American, a wonderful, unique identity. Love your neighbor. Offer second chances. Make a new friend. Try to understand someone better. Buy things. Watch football. Because that’s what this holiday is all about.

But most of all, remember the whole story.

For more about the lives of indigenous Americans, visit the John P. McGovern Hall of the Americas. From our table to yours, Happy Thanksgiving!

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Staff Picks: Best of the Cockrell Butterfly Center

The Cockrell Butterfly Center (CBC) is most well known for its free-flying butterflies inhabiting a three-story indoor rainforest. But there are many other cool things to see and experience at the CBC! We checked with staff members and asked them about their favorite sections of the center, and this is what they said:

Lauren – Lauren is the butterfly entomologist and she takes care of the 800 to 1,000 imported butterflies we receive every week. Her staff picks are the chrysalis emergence chambers. The emergence chambers showcase thousands of live chrysalids of every size, shape and color imaginable! Many have gold spots or flecks. The word “chrysalis” comes from the Greek word for gold, “chrysós.” If you watch carefully you can even observe butterflies emerging, leaving an empty chrysalis shell behind, which they cling to while their wings stretch and dry.

lauren with chrysalids

Lauren stands next to the chrysalis chambers where you can watch butterflies as they emerge.

Erin – Erin is a board certified entomologist and is the insect zoo manager. She cares for all the non-butterfly bugs in the CBC. Her staff pick is the eastern lubber grasshopper sculpture found at the entrance of the entomology hall. The larger-than-life sculpture shows the anatomical details of the grasshopper’s body parts on one side, like the head, thorax, abdomen, wings and antennae. On the other side it shows a cross-section, displaying the insect’s internal organ systems. It’s a great visual introduction of what makes an insect, an insect. 


Erin with the Eastern Lubber grasshopper sculpture you can enjoy in the CBC entomology hall.

Nancy – Nancy is the director of the CBC. Her staff-pick is spicebush caterpillar sculpture found in the entrance of the butterfly center. The giant caterpillar welcomes each visitor into the butterfly center and is a great opportunity for photos! It may seem cartoon-ish, but the sculpture is actually a very realistic representation of the caterpillar that can be found right here in Houston! The large eye-spots on the back of the caterpillar function to trick or scare away predators by making it appear like a bigger animal. 

nancy on caterpillar

Nancy with the spicebush swallowtail caterpillar that greets guests as they enter the CBC.

Soni – Soni is the horticulturist that grows and cares for all of the plants in the CBC rainforest. Her staff pick is the Pride of Trinidad tree in the rainforest. The Pride of Trinidad (Warszewiczia coccinea) is native to Central and South America and the West Indies and is the national tree of Trinidad. The best part of this tree are its showy, flowering branches. Each flower cluster is accented with a red bract and is loaded with nectar. Inside the CBC rainforest, the Pride of Trinidad is in bloom year round and is constantly feeding a variety of butterflies! 


Soni shows off a cluster of flowers on the Pride of Trinidad that feeds many of the butterflies in the CBC rainforest.

Ryan – Ryan is the CBC Bugs-On-Wheels outreach presenter. He travels to schools, day-cares, camps, and clubs to present a variety of bug-related topics (check them out here: Bugs-On-Wheels). His staff pick is the vinegaroon (Mastigoproctus giganteus). This scary looking arachnid is actually quite harmless and easy to handle. They get their name from their defense mechanism. If threatened, glands near the rear of the abdomen can spray acetic acid which has a vinegar-y smell and may dissuade predators from making the vinegaroon their lunch!

ryan with vinnie

Ryan holds a vinegaroon showing their relatively docile nature.

Farrar – Farrar is the curatorial entomologist. He identifies and documents the thousands of species in the CBC’s entomology collection. His staff-pick is the beetle specimen display in the entomology hall. Beetle species make up almost 25 percent of all known animal species. They are found in almost all major natural habitats and are adapted to practically every kind of diet. The British biologist and atheist J.B.S. Haldane once said, when asked whether studying biology had taught him anything about the Creator: “I’m really not sure, except that He must be inordinately fond of beetles.” This quote lines the top of the beetle display in the CBC. 


Farrar stands next to the beetle specimen display you can visit in the CBC entomology hall.

Celeste – Celeste is the butterfly rearing coordinator. She breeds and raises butterflies for the CBC. Her staff pick is Charro, the CBC’s resident iguana! Charro is a Green Iguana (Iguana iguana). Despite this name, he is actually bright orange! Green Iguanas can be a variety of colors depending on what region they come from. Charro can be found relaxing in his enclosure in the rainforest or sunning himself outside the butterfly center by the demo garden. After hours, Charro gets to wander the entire rainforest freely. Don’t worry about the butterflies; Charro is strictly vegetarian. 


Celeste sits with Charro the iguana who resides inside the CBC rainforest.

Next time you visit the CBC make sure to check out all these staff picks, and take time to pick YOUR favorite part of the CBC!

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Mark Your Calendars for these events happening at HMNS 11/23-11/29

Bust out your planners, calendars, and PDAs (if you are throwback like that), it’s time to mark your calendars for the HMNS events of this week! 


Behind-the-Scenes Tour – Out of the Amazon: Life on the River
Tuesday, Nov. 24
6:00 p.m.
HMNS has an unparalleled Amazonia collection which is made up of rare artifacts from thirteen tribes. Priceless pieces of the collection-ceremonial objects, masks, body costumes, headdresses and more-are on display in the special exhibition Out of the Amazon. Tour this temporary exhibition with HMNS master docents who share stories of everyday life among rapidly disappearing indigenous groups. 

Behind-the-Scenes Tour – Spies, Traitors, Saboteurs: Fear and Freedom in America
Tuesday, Nov. 24
6:00 p.m.
Enemies within U.S. borders have been a threat since the birth of our nation. On this tour of “Spies, Traitors, Saboteurs: Fear and Freedom in America” you will learn of various acts of terrorism throughout US history and the government and public responded, as well as, examines the challenge of securing the nation without compromising the civil liberties upon which it was founded.

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Being Natural: Tina Petway

When Tina Petway, Associate Curator of Malacology, retired as a schoolteacher in 1999, she finally embarked on fulfilling her dream since she was 12 years old.

Growing up, Petway was frustrated by the lack of resources for young women interested in scientific careers.

“I was walking on the beach, and I ran into this lady who was picking up shells,” Petway said. “She invited me to come back to her house and her office. She gave me shells, Texas-collected shells. Absolutely brilliant lady.”

This lady was none other than Mildred Tate, a renowned malacologist who helped found the Brazosport Center for the Arts and Sciences in Clute, Texas. Tate gave Petway rare specimens, many books, and a strong foundation for future adventures.


Associate Curator of Malacology Tina Petway pursued shell science later in life. Now she’s an asset to the Houston Museum of Natural Science’s malacology program, and she is full of stories.

Though Petway loved teaching, her passion was malacology. She had a brief stint as an interior decorator right after she finished school but then realized just how precious her shells were to her. The walls of model homes were too static for her, so Petway added some shells and coral specimens from her personal collection to liven things up.

“Well that went over really well and people wanted to buy them. I didn’t want to part with what I had! So that didn’t last too long,” Petway said.

She joined the Houston Shell Club (now the Houston Conchology Society) when she was 16 years old and never looked back. Soon, she was dragging her husband around all over the world looking for rare and exotic specimens. The couple met by coincidence near a family member’s bayhouse, and Petway knew they would get married after just a few months.

“I said, ‘I collect and buy seashells. I go places where there are shells, land snails, freshwater mollusks. That is my scope for life. If I take a vacation, it’s going to be some place like that. And I will continue to buy shells with money I earn. If that’s not ok, if you can’t deal with that, then let’s just be friends and forget this,’” Petway said. “And he said, ‘You know, if you can’t beat them, you join them.’ So he started buying shells, too! He’s as big a collector as I am.”

The pair were together on an uninhabited island in the Solomon Islands chain in 1972 when Petway had an encounter with a venomous cone snail, a group of gastropods that Petway says is her favorite family of mollusks. These snails are carnivores that use venomous barbs loaded with a cocktail of neurotoxins to kill prey. Even today, there is no antivenin. According to Petway, the way to survive is to load up on antihistamines so you keep breathing and use meat tenderizer to draw out the venom.


Petway discusses the anatomy of an octopus and other cephalopods in the Strake Hall of Malacology.

Petway was collecting specimens in small jars when she saw a cone snail scurrying along the reef. Recognizing it as venomous, she picked it up from the base with her right hand, pointing the aperture and barb down and away from her hand as she maneuvered to get a jar and open it.

At that time, another cone snail appeared, and Petway couldn’t resist. She transferred the snail to her other hand, picked up the new specimen and put it in the jar. At around that time, she felt a shooting pain in her left hand.

Petway looked at her left hand and saw that the cone snail had emerged, swung around and stung her on her pointer finger three times. She was 30 miles from the nearest airplane, three miles from the nearest habited island, and too far away for modern medicine to help. Of course, the first thing she did was put the snail in the jar for safe keeping; she still has it to this day.

“I thought, ‘Whoa, I don’t feel good.’ My head was hurting, my eyes were starting to get fuzzy, I was having a hard time breathing, my heart was pounding, and it was then that I accepted that, ‘Dang it, I’ve been stung!’” Petway said.

She hurried to the shore, took lots of antihistamines, wrapped meat tenderizer in a papaya leaf around her finger, and laid down. At that point, she was having difficulty walking, things were blurry, and her breathing was labored.

Petway thought, “‘Well if this is it, I went a really cool way.” What else can you say at a time like that?

The next day, the headache was still there, but her vision had cleared. The headache would remain for about a month, and it was over 10 years before Petway regained full use of her pointer finger.


Petway explains the features of the Australian trumpet shell, the single largest shell in the world and the crown jewel of the Strake Hall of Malacology. Petway estimates that the snail who made the shell was more than 100 years old.

Petway began volunteering at the Houston Museum of Natural Science in 1999 when John Wise was the curator of the Strake Hall of Malacology. When Wise left in 2005, Vice President of Collections Lisa Rebori asked Petway if she could fill in for a while.

“I said sure, of course! At that point, I had been through the whole collection and had pretty much self-cataloged everything that we had and had even started rearranging,” Petway said. “I just kind of started one day a week helping out, and I’ve been here ever since, and you can’t run me off.

“I eat and sleep this job. I absolutely love what I do. I love coming into the museum every day.”

Petway has led the way in a massive undertaking to revamp the Strake Hall of Malacology. Already known around the world as the premier collection of shells, HMNS has over 2.5 million specimens in storage and is working on purchasing more. The new hall will feature more rare specimens and more educational information about mollusks and their habitats.

“There is so much to learn about these animals, and that’s what we want to teach in this new hall. They’re not just pretty, and they are beautiful, but the animals that makes the shells are even more beautiful,” Petway said.

Petway is very passionate about conservation efforts for the world’s oceans and is a strong believer that education is a great method to promote the importance of these habitats. She is hopeful that the new hall will help convey that message to future generations.

It’s something she’s been seeing her whole life.

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