GoodShop online to help the Museum!

Black Friday at the mall - EPSN0277lr
Creative Commons License photo credit: Larsz

It’s that time of year again where everywhere we turn we’re being asked to shop ’til we drop!

If you are the type of person who will do just about anything to avoid the holiday mall traffic you should try shopping online. There’s so much available online and now there’s a way to support charities like the Houston Museum of Natural Science while shopping online from the comfort of your own home!

GoodSearch is an online search engine (like google or yahoo) that donates to the charity of your choice each time you search – I even have the GoodSearch toolbar on my internet window so I can search and donate without even thinking twice! So – GoodSearch has taken it a step further and created GoodShop which is perfect for those of you who like to shop online! GoodShop partners with online retailers so that when you click on a particular online shop from the GoodShop homepage a percentage of your purchase price goes to the charity of your choice! What’s even better is that there is such a variety of online retailers participating (Apple store/Itunes, Best Buy, Nordstrom, Zappos, Amazon.com and Barnes and Noble just to name a few) you can find almost anything you’re looking for via the GoodShop page! There are also deals and coupons that the online shops will sometimes offer to GoodShoppers via the GoodShop page!

So here’s how it works:

1.Go to the GoodShop page

2. Select your Charity (HMNS is already loaded so all you have to do is search Houston Museum)

3. Click on the store of your choice out of the 700 participating retailers and buy something! Up to 30% of your purchase will go to your selected charity!

4. Tell all of your friends!

Tunicates & Taxonomy

Next month, I will be teaching a class about animal groups, families, & taxonomy. Taxonomy shows us how animals (or other objects) are related to one another in a hierarchical structure. There are 7 major groups which we regularly classify animals into, but there are also a wide variety of sub- or super- categories. The major groups of biological classifications are listed below with two examples written out:


American Crow
American Crow
  American Crow North American Giant Octopus
Kingdom Animalia Animalia
Phylum Chordata Mollusca
Class Aves Cephalodpoda
Order Passeriformes Octopoda
Family Corvidae Octopodidae
Genus Corvus Enteroctopus
Species C. brachyrhynchos E. dofleini

Depending on whom you ask, you may find there are 30-38 phyla, the major categories of animals based on their general body plan and developmental or internal organizations. These phyla can vary from containing only one species (Placazoa) to well over a million (Arthropoda).

Coming from a Zoology background, I found that I really like taxonomy and seeing the order and relationships between animals helps me to make sense of how a rock hyrax and an elephant could possibly be close cousins. They are connected in a group called Afrotheria, a superorder of Eutheria (placental mammals) whose relationships have been shown through molecular & DNA anylases.

Here are their classifications:


Rock Hyrax
Rock Hyrax
  Asian Elephant Rock Hyrax
Kingdom Animalia Animalia
Phylum Chordata Chordata
Class Mammalia Mammalia
Infraclass Eutheria Eutheria
Superorder Afrotheria Afrotheria
Order Proboscidea Hyracoidea
Family Elephantidae Procaviidae
Genus Elephas Procavia
Species E. maximus P. capensis

An article came my way about very unusual sea animals found in Antarctica. When I saw the beautiful picture of the tunicates (also known as sea squirts), I wanted to remind myself what these interesting creatures were and who they were related to in the big tree of life.  Although they may look more like “glass tulips” than an animal, these creatures do eat & grow like other animals.  In fact, tunicates are in the same phylum as ourselves, Chordata.  Tunicates, ourselves, hagfish, fish, and other chordates all go through similiar developmental stages that include a notochord (provides support), pharyngeal gill slits (used in feeding), and a tail (helps with locomotion). 

When born, tunicate larvae are similar to small tadpoles, swimming about until they find a suitable rock to settle down on as an adult, cementing themselves to their new home.  Next, they go through many physical changes before fully becoming an adult.  Some tunicates will continue to stay afloat in the ocean their entire lifespan, going through similar metamorphosis as their sedentary cousins.  Tunicates are filter feeders, with in- and out-current siphons.  Food and water is filtered in through their these siphons, then expelled out along with any waste products. 

Here are a few unusual and interesting facts about tunicates:

  • Tunicates are the only animals capable of producing cellulose – produces cell walls in green plants.
  • Tunicate blood contains a high concentration of the metal, vanadium – a metal used to make Lacrosse shafts and simulated Alexandrite jewelry.
  • Tunicate fossils go back as far as the early Cambrian – about 540 million years ago.
  • Tunicates are said to “eat its own brain” during metamorphosis - the tunicate body digests the cerebrial ganglion – a mass of nerves that have a role similar to a brain.
  • Some Tunicates have recently been descovered as invasive species, sometimes hitching a ride on the hulls of ships from one ocean to another.
  • Tunicates are the vertebrates closest living relative.
  • Tunicates are currently being studied in science for certain chemical compounds useful in fighting cancer.


Royal Blue Tunicate
Royal Blue Tunicate
  Royal Blue Tunicate
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Urochordata
Class Ascidiacea
Order Enterogona
Suborder Phlebobranchia
Family Diazonidae
Genus Rhopalaea

Nov. Flickr Photo of the Month – Hemis-face

Once you’ve worked at the Museum for several years, you begin to think you’re familiar with everything, from the smallest object in the most remote exhibit hall to the most visible – giant dinosaurs. And it’s wonderful – objects are like old friends you pass every day in the halls.

So for me, one of the best things about HMNS pool on Flickr is that the amazing photographers who wander our halls are constantly showing me things in a new light. In the case of this month’s pick, Hemis-face by KenU Diggit?, I was completely blown away by something in one of our permanent exhibits that (even after almost five years here) I had actually never seen before. From the composition of the photograph to the contrast in the piece itself, this is a stunning image. Here, KenU Diggit? reveals his technique:

During my short time as a photography hobbyist, fresh perspectives, sharp contrasts, and textures affect how I compose every photograph. The process is simple: find something to shoot, try an interesting approach to the subject, and capture the picture when my “gut feeling” says so.

I have an affinity for macro photography; I love to take pictures as close as I can get to the subject. Little details and subtle textures are more easily captured this way. I was drawn to the wisps of hair and the wear upon the mask. The simple black background give the object the full attention of the viewer.

“Closeness” emotes intimacy. This is the reason why I chose to capture just a portion of the mask. The asymmetry adds an edge and a fresh angle of viewing. I also chose to focus on the eye of the mask. Due to this, the slightly blurred foreground of the mouth and brow creates a sense of depth and draws the viewer closer to the object, as if the mask were only inches away from their own face. For a second, one could mistaken this for real human expression than just a simple mask. As you look it, it looks at you. Don’t be rude; say “Hello” back.

Hemis-face
Hemis-face by KenU Diggit?

KenU Diggit? shot this in the John P McGovern Hall of the Americas, a permanent exhibit at the Houston Museum of Natural Science that features thousands of years of Native American history – from parkas made from seal intestines by the Inuit in Alaska to amazing feather art of the Amazon. This particular object is a Windmaker mask, circa 1875 – 1900. I hope you’ll visit us – and see if you can find it, too.

So, what’s this Photo of the Month feature all about? Our science museum is lucky enough to have talented and enthusiastic people who visit us every day – wandering our halls, grounds and satellite facilities, capturing images of the wonders on display here that rival the beauty of the subjects themselves. Thankfully, many share their photos with us and everyone else in our HMNS Flickr group – and we’re posting our favorites here, on the Museum’s blog, once a month. (You can check out all our previous picks here or here.)

Many thanks to  KenU Diggit? for allowing us to share his stunning beautiful photograph. We hope this and all the other amazing photography in our group on Flickr will inspire you to bring a camera along next time you’re here – and show us what you see.

What the Heck is a Tues, Wed, Thurs, or Fri?

Earth Mars and Moon to scale
Creative Commons License photo credit: Bluedharma

We measure time based on motions in space.  The Earth rotates on its axis once a day.  The Moon orbits the Earth about once a month.  The Earth orbits the Sun once a year.  That leaves the week as the only aspect of our calendar not directly tied to the Earth, Moon, or Sun. The week, as it turns out, is based on the other planets of our solar system–at least, those easily visible to the naked eye.

Early astronomers were able to distinguish planets from stars because planets seem to move against the starry background.  The stars are always rising, moving across the sky, and setting due to Earth’s rotation.  They seem to form the same patterns all the time; we never see them move relative to each other.  (In fact the stars do have proper motion, but we don’t notice it over a time frame as short as a human life or even over several generations).  Anything shifting noticeably over several days was a ‘wandering star’, or planet.  Early astronomers identified seven ‘wanderers’: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, and the Greeks placed them in just that order.

This order, of course, is wrong; it makes the basic error of putting the Sun in orbit around the Earth when in fact the Earth orbits the Sun.  Fixing this error by replacing the Sun with the Earth, however, makes the order from Mercury to Saturn correct.  That’s because the order is based on something directly observable–the planets seem to move among the background stars at different rates.  Ancient observers saw the Moon reappear near the same set of stars once a month.  Saturn, on the other hand, takes 29.5 years to reappear in the same part of the sky. 

The different speeds are even more apparent when two or more planets are near one another in the sky (an alignment called conjunction).  Any planet in conjunction with Saturn catches up to Saturn and then passes it.  It’s never the other way around.  Any planet (other than Saturn) in conjunction with Jupiter catches and passes Jupiter, never the other way around.  For early astronomers, slowness was associated with distance.  By carefully observing the planets’ motions and planetary conjunctions, early observers could place them in order.

Ancient Roman writer Dio Cassius was among the first to explain how the order of the planets from slowest to fastest (and thus from outside in) generated the week.  The system involves the 24-hour day and an astrological belief that each hour was ‘ruled’ by a planet following the order above, such that Saturn’s hour was followed by Jupiter’s, then Mars’, then the Sun’s, and so on.  Further, whichever planet governed the first hour of each day governed that whole day.  On Saturn’s day, then, the hours were as follows:

1) Saturn  2) Jupiter  3) Mars  4) Sun  5) Venus  6) Mercury  7) Moon 8. Saturn  9) Jupiter  10) Mars  11) Sun  12) Venus  13) Mercury  14) Moon  15) Saturn  16) Jupiter  17) Mars  18) Sun  19) Venus  20) Mercury  21) Moon  22) Saturn  23) Jupiter  24) Mars  25) Sun

Since there are 24 hours in a day, the 25th hour of Saturn’s day is the first hour of the next day.  Therefore, Saturn-day is followed by Sun-day.  Redo the list of hours, this time starting with the Sun, such that hours 1, 8, 15, and 22 are the Sun’s.  Hour 25 becomes the Moon’s hour, which means the Sun-day is followed by Moon-day.  Repeat the list with the Moon in first position, and eventually the following order of days emerges:

1) Saturn-day  2) Sun-day  3) Moon-day  4) Mars-day  5) Mercury-day  6) Jupiter day  7) Venus-day

If Venus governs the first hour, Saturn governs the 25th, and the cycle begins again.  A full table of the hours and days is here (this list also has the name of the days in 30 different languages).

You probably recognize Saturday, Sunday, and Monday in this list.  To get the other English day names from this list, we have to translate by replacing the planet names, which are names of Roman deities, with roughly equivalent Germanic deities.  Languages derived directly from Latin have preserved the Roman gods’ (thus the planets’) names more faithfully.  For example, you can recognize Latin luna (the Moon) in French lundi, Spanish lunes, and Italian lunedì.

Apollo Belvedere
Creative Commons License photo credit: Alun Salt

Similarly, Mars-day is martes in Spanish, mardi in french, and martedì in Italian.  Germanic tribes, however, replaced the Roman war god Mars with their own warlike god Tiw (or Tyr for the Norse).  Thus, Mars’ day became Tiw’s day or Tuesday.

‘Mercury-day’ is recognizable in French mercredi, Spanish miércoles, and Italian mercoledì.  The Germanic pantheon had no messenger god that corresponded well to the Roman Mercury, so they equated him with Woden (Norse Odin).  Both Woden and Mercury were gods who escorted the recently deceased to the underworld.  Also, Woden became the fastest god when he rode his eight-legged horse Sleipnir.

UN_Zeus
Creative Commons License photo credit: Pro-Zak

Jupiter’s original name in Latin was Jovis (‘Jove’ to English writers); the name Jupiter is a contraction of Jovis pater (‘father Jove’).  ‘Jove-day’ is recognizable in French jeudi, Spanish jueves, and Italian giovedì.   Although Jupiter, like the Greek Zeus, was the king of all the gods, his actual domain was the weather.  In particular, he was the god who caused storms and struck people with lightning.  Thus Germanic tribes assigned his day to Thor, their god of thunder.  Thor’s day is Thursday.

‘Venus-day’ is still recognizeable in French vendredi, Spanish viernes, and Italian venerdì.  Germanic tribes replaced Venus’s name with that of Frigg, the wife of Woden who was associated with married women and whom they called upon to help in giving birth.  Frigg-day is Friday.

As the Germanic tribes had no one in their pantheon who even roughly corresponded to Saturn, Saturn’s name remains in Saturday.  Ironically, the Latin-based languages have lost ‘Saturn-day’ as the day’s name.  Spanish sábado and Italian sabato derive from the word ‘sabbath’ (as does French samedi, through a more complex etymology).  This is due to the influence of the Catholic Church, which was loath to name the days of the week after pagan gods, and sought to replace the planetary names. 

The Church designated Sunday ‘Lord’s Day’ (dies dominicus), called Saturday the sabbath (sabbatum), and numbered the weekdays from 2 to 6.  Except in Portugal, however, the numbered weekdays never replaced the planetary days in popular usage.  Everyday people in southern Europe did adopt the Church’s terms for the weekend days.  Northern Europe, largely outside the influence of the Catholic Church, was less affected by this; we retain ‘Saturday’ and ‘Sunday’ in English as a result.

In November and December 2008, you can make for yourself some of the observations that helped astronomers of antiquity imagine the solar system.  The two brightest points of light in the southwest tonight are Venus and Jupiter.  They outshine all stars we ever see at night and are visible even in twilight.  But don’t wait too late; you’ll need to look in the hours right after sundown before the two planets set.  Venus, lower to the horizon, is the brighter of the two.  Its closeness to us and the clouds that cover the whole surface and reflect most sunlight back into space cause Venus to outshine the much larger Jupiter.

Watch as Venus gets closer and closer to Jupiter each night this month.  This is exactly how ancient astronomers could tell that Venus and Jupiter were not stars.  On November 30 and December 1, watch as Venus passes 2 degrees ‘under’ Jupiter.  (The crescent Moon also passes by on these nights).  Imagine ancient Greek astronomers concluding that Venus is closer because it is faster.  Keep watching each night in December as Venus pulls away from Jupiter, getting higher in the dusk sky while Jupiter sinks into the Sun’s glare by early January.  Early astronomers would have seen this as the Sun catching up to Jupiter while Venus pulls away; observations like this account for the Sun’s position in the ancient order of ‘planets’.  Of course, we now know better–the Sun’s apparent motion is really ours.  Earth is going around the far side of the Sun from Jupiter’s position, putting Jupiter behind the Sun as the New Year opens. 

Venus remains an evening star until March 2009.  Compare Venus to the stars around it, and you’ll see it slow down and then move ‘backwards’ towards the Sun’s position each night in March.  That’s because Venus will have come around to our side of the Sun, and will be passing us up on its faster orbit. 

Should you make any of these observations on a Thursday or Friday, you can reflect on why those days have those names.