One tough decision…

August 18, 2008

For those of you who read my first blog, you will note that I decided to make use of some of those old camp diaries that are just collecting dust at home rather than inform everyone how great the weather is this week.  So along those lines, here is my second contribution.

I was about halfway through my Master’s thesis program at the time this account was written.  During the early 1990s I struggled, as some grad students do more than others, with the various personal relationships I was in (graduate advisors to girlfriends – you name it!), struggled with finding a respectable thesis project (I knew it would be something involving Neotropical Mammalogy, and it was in the end), and above all, the struggle to do what is right. 

While this latter challenge became easier for me with age and experience, I think part of the reason it is so much more challenging at a younger age is because you are exposed to so many different strong yet influential personalities – characters that mold the sort of person you turn out to be for the duration of your life.  As you can guess, I was (and still am today) exposed to a great variety of folks, some true heroes and others not so much. 

This story takes us back to a remote village in east-central Mexico amidst beautiful tropical montane forest.  The subject matter revolves around a species of Neotropical bat – my fascination with these magnificent creatures was strongly influenced through two legends in our discipline, Robert J. Baker and J. Knox Jones, Jr.  These Horn Professors at Texas Tech University were strong influences on my character and dedication to the field.  In fact Robert and I collaborate on projects today, and Knox, though deceased, lives every day in my memory, as we named our son, Levi Knox Brooks, in his honor.

-DB, 13 August 2008

 El Cielo (Photo by D.M. Brooks)

One tough decision…

~25 May 1992
Alta Cime, El Cielo Biosphere Reserve, Tamaulipas, Mexico

I couldn’t believe it was already close to midnight.  We were sitting around the table in a small one-room dwelling with dirt floor, rough wooden table in the center, and the flickering light provided by a kerosene lantern in the corner.  The sheriff of the township of Alta Cime was out making his night-time rounds.  His two children were fast asleep, wrapped up in their blankets on the floor.  Sitting around the table were his wife, my counterpart Jorgito, my charming assistant Sue, and me.  Nobody had said anything for a long time – 10 minutes of silence with a strong judicial overbearing seemed like hours.  In my hand was a small cloth bag containing a living organism – a young bat that was dredging up our collective four ideologies, trying to find resolve what had become a huge thorn in our summed moral consciousness, which grew heavier by the minute…

It was my first trip to study Neotropical bats, and my first trip to this region of Mexico.  Sue and I headed south from Lubbock, stopping overnight in Junction along the banks of the south fork of the Llano River in the beautiful Texas Hill Country.  After the usual several hour delays with hassles at the border with customs officers, we were finally on our way to the southern region of the beautiful state of Tamaulipas. 

Our destination was what at the time was a brand new Biosphere Reserve called El Cielo (or del Cielo; 22055’30”-23025’50” N, 99095’50”-99026’30” W), located just south of the Tropic of Cancer.  Although this region had been worked actively by (mostly American) scientists for several decades prior to our arrival, it was not made an official protected reserve zone until recently.  [Incidentally, today El Cielo is visited far and wide by birdwatchers from all over the globe, as it is only a six hour drive south of the Texas border.]  The Biosphere Reserve model has three broad zones: a human use area on the periphery, a controlled use area in the middle, and in the core – a pristine reserve restricted to scientists traveling by foot or horseback (no vehicles allowed!).

Our first site to net bats was in the core of the reserve at around 4,200 feet in altitude.  It was a long hike in and a long hike out, but worth it when we arrived, as the habitat was absolutely stunning tropical montane forest.  Unfortunately, the rain during the evening our bat nets were erected yielded only a single specimen of a small fruit-eating bat (Dermanura [a genus which today is considered Artibeus]). 

Our second site at Los Cedros (~900 feet) was where the main field station was located for the reserve.  We strung several mist-nets along tropical forest edge, which yielded a great diversity of lowland, primarily fruit-eating bats, including two species each of fruit-eating bats (Artibueus jamaicensis and A. lituratus) and yellow-shouldered bats (Sturnira lilium and S. ludovici), and of course, our token blood-sucker – the omnipresent common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). 

The two species of Sturnira were virtually indistinguishable, and could only really be keyed out by examining the ridge of their lower incisors (whether the incisors were dilobate or trilobate).  What was going through the minds of our entomologist colleagues I could only imagine, as we pried open the little bat’s mouth with one hand, holding the bat still with the same hand, holding a pocket-sized magnifying glass with the other hand, and illuminating our ‘work space’ with a headlamp, all the while trying not to get bit!

photo by L. Siles
 Common vampire bat
(Photo by L. Siles)

Our final site, the township of Alta Cime (~3300 feet) was met with excitement as Los Cedros proved so productive!  We immediately sought out the town sheriff / mayor / administrator, for just as in many of the old westerns, the head cheese of a given town often wears many hats.  We told him why we were there, and he kindly offered us a spacious and surprisingly clean abandoned goat shed to make camp in and devour our cans of spam and refried beans.  He said he would not be around in the evening, as he had to make the rounds, but kindly extended the invite to use the backyard of his own ranch house. 

We went ahead and accompanied him to his backyard, which contained pigs, poultry, and a small garden with large trumpet-vine flowers.  While it didn’t appear to be much, we went ahead and obligingly strung our bat nets, which proved surprisingly productive as the evening rolled in.  The pigs and poultry, respectively, lured in both common (D. rotundus) and hairy-legged (Diphylla ecaudata) vampire bats.  The deep corolla-tubed flowers lured in a nectar-feeding bat called the Mexican hog-nosed bat (Choeronycteris mexicana), which had never been recorded in the reserve!

So there we sat, around the table dimly illuminated by kerosene lamp.  In my hand I held a small cloth sack which fit comfortably in the palm of my hand.  The sack contained a young male hog-nosed bat; we could tell it was a young bat because the finger knuckles were swollen as the bone joints were not fully fused (un-ossified phalanges).  And thus began the dilemma – this species of bat had never been recorded in the reserve before, but in order to make the record official we had to sacrifice the bat to prepare as a museum voucher specimen. 

As a young grad student affiliated with the Museum at Texas Tech University, I had sacrificed and prepared quite a few study specimens, but none were necessarily of species that were rare in nature.  We found many reasons to sacrifice the little bat and many reasons to set it free.  Our morals were in a hyper-state of flux – well, Choeronycteris is not considered Endangered so it should be fine to collect it; but it has to be rare, otherwise it would have been collected before; but then again, as budding young scientists it would be great to prove our worth by documenting a new species for the reserve; but could we keep our dignity if the species was in fact rare, all for the sake of a published note?  What to DO? what to do…  [What would you have done?]

Post-log (13 August 2008): In the end we set the little bugger go.  Perhaps this was the right decision (if you believe in karma?), as I have gone on to document much more relevant records in the years that have ensued, including new state records, regional records, country records, and most importantly, new species.  At such an early stage of my career, the fate of this little bat that evening in Alta Cime proved an incredibly tough decision.  Such decisions became less difficult with time, and in the years that followed I collected and prepared many specimens.  But I will never forget the complex issues each of the four of us mulled over that evening in Mexico’s newest reserve, over the fate of a young nectar-feeding bat.

Authored By Dan Brooks

As curator of vertebrate zoology, Dr. Brooks has more backbone(s) than anyone at the Museum! He is recognized internationally as the authority on Cracids - the most threatened family of birds in the Americas. With an active research program studying birds and mammals of Texas and the tropics, Brooks advises several grad students internationally. At HMNS, Brooks served as project manager of the world-renowned Frensley-Graham Hall of African Wildlife, overseeing building by an incredibly diverse array of talent by some 50 individuals. He has also created and/or served as curator for various traveling exhibits, including "Cracids: on Wings of Peril".

14 responses to “One tough decision…”

  1. Lisa says:

    Great blog. I can imagine being out there, and the debate in your decision. You are a good writer. Keep up the good work.

  2. Jim says:


    I usually am not much into reading blogs – and I have to say especially those about wildlife – because at times I find the authors to be completely immersed in their own ideologies, and philosophical opinions and forget about telling a story (not to mention they are not very informative about reality).

    However, I read your piece on ONE TOUGH DECISION – and I have to say – not only well written – but a very good story – It made me reflect on my own moment in my career of a very similar ‘tough decision’ – and made me think of how many other budding biologist/naturalists run into that same issue.
    I told the story to my son (truncated) – who although is only 7 – is very much into nature and is coming to terms with some of these very issues with nature – and how nature/conservation is at times managed (whether you agree or disagree with the methods). We had a very good talk about what he would do and why (interesting coming from a childs point of view) –and telling him what I did in the same situation – and why. In today’s day and age wildlife and its management is a very complex issue.

    Thanks for the content.

  3. Dan: What a surprise to read my very first “blog”. I had never done so and am enchanted by all the “stuff” you accumulated here. What bugs me though is that you have yet to send me a placenta of any kind of bat (I have a vampire), nor a pregnant uterus. This would be much appreciated since very little work is being done on them now that Wimsatt is no longer with us.–It was of great interest to me to read the Baker & Bradley paper on “Speciation in Mammals and the Genetic Species Concept” that comes up in your blog. You will surely recall the Chacoan peccary with its 20 chromosomes and the other two species of peccary (2n=26 & 30); now that another “Giant Peccary” was discovered in Brazil, I had hoped that you would be on your way to ascertain its DNA etc. When are you going? Best wishes, Kurt Benirschke.

  4. Brent says:

    And all the bats under the Waugh Street Bridge respect you for your decision.

  5. This “moderated” comments bugs me. What is it meant to do?

  6. Erin says:

    Hi Kurt,

    We moderate comments to ensure that the discussions here remain family-friendly and welcoming to everyone who would like to share their views. You can see our comment policy here.

    We do our very best to make sure all comments that we can share here – such as yours – are approved immediately. Thanks for reading the blog, and thanks for your comments!

  7. Tom R says:

    That is a tough decision but I think you chose wisely. Of course, I’ve never tasted one off those things so it’s still a hard call. Just kidding. For karma’s sake I think I would have freed him but I’ve never been in that position; young, unproven wet-behind the ears biologist with something to prove. I imagine it was pretty tempting to take a trophy back to Lubbock.

  8. Jon says:

    Cats and bats their all good to eat! But the nectar eating ones are just too sweet! Good you let him go! Great story. (Also read Knox’s obituary and recognize why he was such a great influence on your work.) Say hi to Levi!

  9. Jerry Caraviotis says:

    Read your story, great fun. The Cielo area is about as close as I’ve come to paradise so far!

    I’m glad that you “Freed the bird, Mon, freed the bird!”

  10. Barbara House says:

    I know the area well, and was there once with a man who did his doctoral work on bats, believe it or not. Thank you for letting the bat go. I have a serious problem with the collecting for collecting’s sake, and the many drawers full of specimens. I hope digital cameras will put an end to the “collecting” of some poor unfortunate animal that happens to be rare. Your decision further reinforces my belief that you are the best!

  11. Steve says:

    Nice story. I remember the bat netting in Junction (and Sue). What were those y’all were catching there, Pallid Bats? Don’t remember. I also remember my own trip to Alta Cime a few years back. I recall a picnic lunch under a tree that sported a Magnificent Hummingbird while I enjoyed a Social Flycatcher foraging a little further off. Great place and I think you made the right decision with the bat. The question is what did Knox and Clyde think about it?

  12. Dr. Dan,

    Keep writing. If we can’t afford gas to drive to the museum, you can bring it to us in living color.


  13. Dan Brooks says:

    Thanks one and all for the great replies!

    Lisa, Brent, Tom, JZ, and all the rest of you – Thanks for the kind words!

    Jim – That’s really kind of you to post this – made my week! The main reason I am participating in the HMNS blog is to reach our to the young scientists of tomorrow (through their preferred media!).

    Kurt – What a profound influence you have been in my work ethic, “Dr. One Medicine”! I would love nothing more than to take off tomorrow and study behavior of Van Roosmalen’s mammoth peccary in eastern Amazonia, as I once did for you many years ago with Catagonus in the Chaco. What an incredible and productive life you have led! Might make good fodder for one of these blog posts some day… How is Rolf?

    Jon – Yeah, Knox pretty much shattered the mold. There will never be another one like him…

    Jerry – “Free the bird mon, free the bird” is actually a Baker story from work in Jamaica, but I love telling it because it’s so dam funny!

    Barbara – Yeah, thanks to the wildlife rehabbers we’re able to get a lot of the local stuff without taking it from nature. The stuff in other countries is a different story though, and becoming increasingly difficult to legally collect each year. By the way, I’m gonna go bag a couple elephants in the Zambia next month, wanna come along? Sorry, couldn’t resist…

    Steve – They were Pallid bats indeed! Under the big oak trees close to the river. When I told Baker we were gonna set up some nets there on the way to El Cielo he looked a little surprised, then said, “Those gals under those big oaks are personal friends of mine, so make certain you don’t collect any Daniel.” By “those gals” he was of course referring to the maternity roost of Pallid bats. Apparently he took students there time-to-time to show them the bats.
    As for Clyde and Knox, remember what the cowboys did to the hippies in Lubbock (one held them down while the other shaved their head)? and remember how my long hair mysteriously disappeared? Well, now you know why.. Just kidding – i think somehow I forgot to tell them the story!

  14. R.L.Dick Brooks says:

    Hi Dan: Loved your blog. With my travels to Patagonia, NYC and New England, I am just now catching up. Keep up the great work – Love Dad

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